Assembly of an intact Golgi complex requires phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity, membrane tubules, and dynein-mediated microtubule transport.
ABSTRACT Previous studies have shown that treatment of mammalian cells with phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) antagonists cause the normally interconnected Golgi ribbon to break up into large fragments of stacked Golgi cisternae ("mini-stacks") that remain located in the juxtanuclear region. Using the reversible PLA(2) antagonist, ONO-RS-082 (ONO) and live-cell, time-lapse microscopy to image the Golgi reassembly process, we found that Golgi mini-stacks underwent a burst of membrane tubule formation following washout of ONO: before washout only 4.3+/-3.8 tubules/cell/10 min were formed, whereas after washout 29.9+/-11.9 tubules/cell/10 min formed. These membranes tubules formed bridges between physically separate mini-stacks, thus mediating their coalescence into intact Golgi ribbons. Formation of inter-stack tubules and an intact Golgi ribbon was also facilitated by microtubules because treatment with nocodazole significantly inhibited both processes. This microtubule-dependent process was also dependent on dynein because the dynein inhibitor nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) inhibited reassembly. These studies show that a late stage of Golgi assembly occurs via membrane tubules, whose formation is dependent on PLA(2) activity and microtubules. Considering these results together, we concluded that the maintenance and assembly of normal Golgi architecture is dependent on the PLA(2)-mediated, dynamic formation of inter-Golgi membrane tubules.
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ABSTRACT: Rat liver Golgi stacks were incubated with mitotic cytosol for 30 min at 37 degrees C to generate mitotic Golgi fragments comprising vesicles, tubules, and cisternal remnants. These were isolated and further incubated with rat liver cytosol for 60 min. The earliest intermediate observed by electron microscopy was a single, curved cisterna with tubular networks fused to the cisternal rims. Elongation of this cisterna was accompanied by stacking and further growth at the cisternal rims. Stacks also fused laterally so that the typical end product was a highly curved stack of 2-3 cisternae mostly enclosing an electron-lucent space. Reassembly occurred in the presence of nocodazole or cytochalasin B but not at 4 degrees C or in the absence of energy supplied in the form of ATP and GTP. Pretreatment of the mitotic fragments and cytosol with N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) also prevented reassembly. GTP gamma S and A1F prevented reassembly when added during fragmentation but not when added to the reassembly mixture. In fact, GTP gamma S stimulated reassembly such that all cisternae were stacked at the end of the incubation and comprised 40% of the total membrane. In contrast, microcystin inhibited stacking so that only single cisternae accumulated. Together these results provide a detailed picture of the reassembly process and open up the study of the architecture of the Golgi apparatus to a combined morphological and biochemical analysis.The Journal of Cell Biology 06/1995; 129(3):605-18. · 10.26 Impact Factor
Article: Brefeldin A causes a microtubule-mediated fusion of the trans-Golgi network and early endosomes.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Brefeldin A (BFA) is a fungal metabolite that causes a redistribution of the stacked cisternae of the Golgi complex into the endoplasmic reticulum by inhibiting anterograde transport. We report that BFA also causes membrane tubules derived from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to fuse with early endosomes. In the presence of BFA, a mannose-6-phosphate receptor (M6PR)-enriched tubular network rapidly forms from the TGN, not from the prelysosomal compartment, and can be labeled with endocytic tracers after only 5 min of uptake at either 20 degrees C or 37 degrees C, indicating that it is also functionally an early endosome. Formation of the TGN-early endosome network is microtubule dependent and may involve modification of membrane processes affected by microtubule-associated motor activity. Concomitant with the formation of the fused TGN-early endosome network, there is a greater than 5-fold increase in cell surface M6PRs. The data suggest that BFA has revealed a membrane transport cycle between the TGN and early endosomes, perhaps used for the secretion or delivery of molecules to the cell surface.Cell 12/1991; 67(3):591-600. · 32.40 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Our view of what happens to the Golgi and ER during mitosis in mammalian cells has been shaken once more. Rather than the Golgi contents being recycled through, or mixed with the ER, two recent studies taking complementary approaches, find that the contents of these organelles remain separate throughout mitosis.The Journal of Cell Biology 04/2004; 164(7):955-8. · 10.26 Impact Factor