Differential Toxicity of Carbon Nanomaterials in Drosophila: Larval Dietary Uptake Is Benign, but Adult Exposure Causes Locomotor Impairment and Mortality

Department of Chemistry, Division of Engineering, Institute for Molecular and Nanoscale Innovation, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912, USA.
Environmental Science and Technology (Impact Factor: 5.48). 08/2009; 43(16):6357-63. DOI: 10.1021/es901079z
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Rapid growth in nanomaterial manufacturing is raising concerns about potential adverse effects on the environment. Nanoparticle contact with intact organisms in the wild may lead to different biological responses than those observed in laboratory cell-based toxicity assays. In nature, the scale and chemistry of nanoparticles coupled with the surface properties, texture, and behaviors of the organisms will influence biologically significant exposure and ultimate toxicity. We used larval and adult Drosophila melanogaster to study the effects of carbon nanomaterial exposure under several different scenarios. Dietary uptake of fullerene C60, carbon black (CB), or single-walled or multiwalled nanotubes (SWNTs, MWNTs) delivered through the food to the larval stage had no detectable effect on egg to adult survivorship, despite evidence that the nanomaterials are taken up and become sequestered in tissue. However, when these same nanocarbons were exposed in dry form to adults, some materials (CB, SWNTs) adhered extensively to fly surfaces, overwhelmed natural grooming mechanisms, and led to impaired locomotor function and mortality. Others (C60, MWNT arrays) adhered weakly, could be removed by grooming, and did not reduce locomotor function or survivorship. Evidence is presented that these differences are primarily due to differences in nanomaterial superstructure, or aggregation state, and that the combination of adhesion and grooming can lead to active fly borne nanoparticle transport.

Download full-text


Available from: David M. Rand, Aug 23, 2015
  • Source
    • "However, in vivo studies could be considered much more interesting in terms of risk evaluation than in vitro approaches with mammal or human cells since they do not completely simulate the complex cell–cell, cell–matrix interactions and hormonal effects found in the in vivo systems (Chibber et al., 2013). In this scenario, recent studies have demonstrated that the fruit fly D. melanogaster offers several benefits as an in vivo model for the study of dietary intake and tissue distribution of nano-carbon–based materials (Leeuw et al., 2007; Liu et al., 2009), the study of the potential toxicity of metal and metal oxide-based NPs on reproduction and development (Gorth et al., 2011; Philbrook et al., 2011; Pompa et al., 2011; Posgai et al., 2011) and the study of genotoxicity after exposure to silver, cobalt, gold, titanium, zirconium and aluminium NPs (Ahamed et al., 2010; Demir et al., 2011, 2013; Sabella et al., 2011; Vales et al., 2012; Vecchio et al., 2012). The aforementioned results would reinforce the usefulness of the Drosophila model as a first-tier in vivo test for genotoxicity testing of NMs. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONP) are manufactured on a large scale and can be found in a variety of consumer products, such as sunscreens, lotions, paints and food additives. Few studies have been carried out on its genotoxic potential and related mechanisms in whole organisms. In the present study, the in vivo genotoxic activity of ZnONP and its bulk form was assayed using the wing-spot test and comet assay in Drosophila melanogaster. Additionally, a lipid peroxidation analysis using the thiobarbituric acid assay was also performed. Results obtained with the wing-spot test showed a lack of genotoxic activity of both ZnO forms. However, when both particle sizes were tested in the comet assay using larvae hemocytes, a significant increase in DNA damage was observed for ZnONP treatments, but only at the higher dose applied. In addition, the lipid peroxidation assay showed significant malondialdehyde (MDA) induction for both ZnO forms, but the induction of MDA for ZnONP was higher than for the ZnO bulk, suggesting that the observed DNA strand breaks could be induced mediated oxidative stress. The overall data suggests that the potential genotoxicity of ZnONP in Drosophila can be considered weak according to the lack of mutagenic and recombinogenic effects and the induction of primary DNA damage only at high-toxic doses of ZnONP. This study is the first assessing the genotoxic and oxidative stress potential of nano and bulk ZnO particles in Drosophila.
    Toxicology and Industrial Health 06/2015; DOI:10.1177/0748233715599472 · 1.71 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster Meigen (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is one of the most valuable organisms in biological research, particularly in genetics and developmental biology [37]. D. melanogaster has been used as a model organism for research for almost a century [38]; it is easy to handle, a small animal with a short life cycle, and cheap and easy to keep at large numbers [39]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In recent years, nanotechnology has become one of the most promising new approaches for pest control. In our screening program, laboratory trials were conducted to determine the effectiveness of five sources of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) and sulfur nanoparticles (S NPs) on larval, pupal, and adults of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Nanoparticles of silver and sulfur were synthesized through reducing, stabilizing, and capping plant leaf extracts method and different concentrations (10, 50, 100, 200 ppm) were tested on D. melanogaster. Results showed that silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were highly effective on larvae, pupae, and adults’mortality and egg deterrence.Onthe contrary, none of the tested nanoparticles has a significant effect on pupae longevity. The results also showed that silver nanoparticles can be used as a valuable tool in pest management programs of D. melanogaster.
    Journal of Nanomaterials 01/2015; 2015:9 pages. DOI:10.1155/2015/758132 · 1.61 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "The data were combined following verification that the two independent experiments produced acceptable reproducibility. The concentrations used in these experiments were based on studies of cell viability and clonogenicity performed by Franchi et al. (2009) and toxicity of carbon nanomaterials in Drosophila (Liu et al., 2009). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are formed by rolling up a single graphite sheet into a tube. Among the different types of CNTs, the multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) comprise a set of concentric nanotubes with perfect structures. Several uses for MWCNTs have been suggested to be included in biological applications such as manufacturing of biosensors, carriers of drugs. However, before these materials can be put on the market, it is necessary to know their genotoxic effects. Thus, this study aims to evaluate the mutagenicity of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) functionalized in somatic cells of Drosophila melanogaster, using the somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART). This assay detects the loss of heterozygosity of marker genes expressed phenotypically on the wings of the fly. Larvae of three days were used, resulting from ST cross, with basal levels of the cytochrome P450 and larvae of high metabolic bioactivity capacity (HB cross). They were treated with different concentrations of MWCNTs functionalized. The MH descendants, analyzed in both ST and HB crosses, had no significant effects on the frequency of mutant. Based on the results and on the experimental conditions mentioned in this study, it was concluded that MWCNTs were not mutagenic in D. melanogaster.
    Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association 08/2013; 62. DOI:10.1016/j.fct.2013.08.051 · 2.61 Impact Factor
Show more