Differential Toxicity of Carbon Nanomaterials in Drosophila: Larval Dietary Uptake Is Benign, but Adult Exposure Causes Locomotor Impairment and Mortality

Department of Chemistry, Division of Engineering, Institute for Molecular and Nanoscale Innovation, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912, USA.
Environmental Science and Technology (Impact Factor: 5.33). 08/2009; 43(16):6357-63. DOI: 10.1021/es901079z
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Rapid growth in nanomaterial manufacturing is raising concerns about potential adverse effects on the environment. Nanoparticle contact with intact organisms in the wild may lead to different biological responses than those observed in laboratory cell-based toxicity assays. In nature, the scale and chemistry of nanoparticles coupled with the surface properties, texture, and behaviors of the organisms will influence biologically significant exposure and ultimate toxicity. We used larval and adult Drosophila melanogaster to study the effects of carbon nanomaterial exposure under several different scenarios. Dietary uptake of fullerene C60, carbon black (CB), or single-walled or multiwalled nanotubes (SWNTs, MWNTs) delivered through the food to the larval stage had no detectable effect on egg to adult survivorship, despite evidence that the nanomaterials are taken up and become sequestered in tissue. However, when these same nanocarbons were exposed in dry form to adults, some materials (CB, SWNTs) adhered extensively to fly surfaces, overwhelmed natural grooming mechanisms, and led to impaired locomotor function and mortality. Others (C60, MWNT arrays) adhered weakly, could be removed by grooming, and did not reduce locomotor function or survivorship. Evidence is presented that these differences are primarily due to differences in nanomaterial superstructure, or aggregation state, and that the combination of adhesion and grooming can lead to active fly borne nanoparticle transport.

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Available from: David M. Rand, Sep 26, 2015
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    • "However, in vivo studies could be considered much more interesting in terms of risk evaluation than in vitro approaches with mammal or human cells since they do not completely simulate the complex cell–cell, cell–matrix interactions and hormonal effects found in the in vivo systems (Chibber et al., 2013). In this scenario, recent studies have demonstrated that the fruit fly D. melanogaster offers several benefits as an in vivo model for the study of dietary intake and tissue distribution of nano-carbon–based materials (Leeuw et al., 2007; Liu et al., 2009), the study of the potential toxicity of metal and metal oxide-based NPs on reproduction and development (Gorth et al., 2011; Philbrook et al., 2011; Pompa et al., 2011; Posgai et al., 2011) and the study of genotoxicity after exposure to silver, cobalt, gold, titanium, zirconium and aluminium NPs (Ahamed et al., 2010; Demir et al., 2011, 2013; Sabella et al., 2011; Vales et al., 2012; Vecchio et al., 2012). The aforementioned results would reinforce the usefulness of the Drosophila model as a first-tier in vivo test for genotoxicity testing of NMs. "
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    ABSTRACT: Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONP) are manufactured on a large scale and can be found in a variety of consumer products, such as sunscreens, lotions, paints and food additives. Few studies have been carried out on its genotoxic potential and related mechanisms in whole organisms. In the present study, the in vivo genotoxic activity of ZnONP and its bulk form was assayed using the wing-spot test and comet assay in Drosophila melanogaster. Additionally, a lipid peroxidation analysis using the thiobarbituric acid assay was also performed. Results obtained with the wing-spot test showed a lack of genotoxic activity of both ZnO forms. However, when both particle sizes were tested in the comet assay using larvae hemocytes, a significant increase in DNA damage was observed for ZnONP treatments, but only at the higher dose applied. In addition, the lipid peroxidation assay showed significant malondialdehyde (MDA) induction for both ZnO forms, but the induction of MDA for ZnONP was higher than for the ZnO bulk, suggesting that the observed DNA strand breaks could be induced mediated oxidative stress. The overall data suggests that the potential genotoxicity of ZnONP in Drosophila can be considered weak according to the lack of mutagenic and recombinogenic effects and the induction of primary DNA damage only at high-toxic doses of ZnONP. This study is the first assessing the genotoxic and oxidative stress potential of nano and bulk ZnO particles in Drosophila.
    Toxicology and Industrial Health 06/2015; DOI:10.1177/0748233715599472 · 1.86 Impact Factor
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    • "The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster Meigen (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is one of the most valuable organisms in biological research, particularly in genetics and developmental biology [37]. D. melanogaster has been used as a model organism for research for almost a century [38]; it is easy to handle, a small animal with a short life cycle, and cheap and easy to keep at large numbers [39]. "
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    ABSTRACT: In recent years, nanotechnology has become one of the most promising new approaches for pest control. In our screening program, laboratory trials were conducted to determine the effectiveness of five sources of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) and sulfur nanoparticles (S NPs) on larval, pupal, and adults of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Nanoparticles of silver and sulfur were synthesized through reducing, stabilizing, and capping plant leaf extracts method and different concentrations (10, 50, 100, 200 ppm) were tested on D. melanogaster. Results showed that silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were highly effective on larvae, pupae, and adults’mortality and egg deterrence.Onthe contrary, none of the tested nanoparticles has a significant effect on pupae longevity. The results also showed that silver nanoparticles can be used as a valuable tool in pest management programs of D. melanogaster.
    Journal of Nanomaterials 01/2015; 2015:9 pages. DOI:10.1155/2015/758132 · 1.64 Impact Factor
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    • "Unfortunately, in this case, the aberrations induced by nanomaterials in the organism of Drosophila confirm the suspect that this new materials can interact with genetic heritage inducing mutations in living organisms (Singh et al., 2009). Apart from AuNPs, Drosophila was successfully applied as model organism to investigate the toxicity of several ENMs, such as silver nanoparticles (Ahamed et al., 2010; Armstrong et al., 2013; Demir et al., 2011; Gorth et al., 2011; Panacek et al., 2011; Posgai et al., 2011), silica nanoparticles (Barandeh et al., 2012; Pandey et al., 2013), carbonbased nanomaterials (de Andrade et al., 2014; Ghosh et al., 2011; Leeuw et al., 2007; Liu et al., 2009), quantum-dots (Brunetti et al., 2013; Galeone et al., 2012; Parvin et al., 2013), etc. The versatility of Drosophila has allowed its employement for the in vivo quantitative ranking of several types of nanoparticles with different coatings and/or surface chemistries (Pompa et al., 2011a; Vecchio et al., 2013), highlighting the importance of post-synthesis modifications in order to modulate the physicochemical characteristics of ENMs and, consequently, their toxicity outcomes. "
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Drosophila was the most important model organism used in the fields of medicine and biology over the last century. Recently, Drosophila was successfully used in several studies in the field of nanotoxicology. However, only a part of its potential has been exploited in this field until now. In fact, apart from macroscopic observations of the effect due to the interaction between nanomaterials and living organism (i.e. lifespan, fertility, phenotypic aberrations, etc.), Drosophila has the potential to be a very useful tool to deeply analyze the molecular pathways involved in response to the interactions at nano-bio level. The aim of this editorial is to encourage the use of Drosophila by the different research groups working in the fields of nanotoxicology and nanomedicine, in order to define the effects induced by nanomaterials at molecular level for their subsequent exploitation in the field of nanomedicine.
    Nanotoxicology 04/2014; 9(2). DOI:10.3109/17435390.2014.911985 · 6.41 Impact Factor
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