Article

"Juvenile stress" alters maturation-related changes in expression of the neural cell adhesion molecule L1 in the limbic system: relevance for stress-related psychopathologies.

Department of Psychology, University of Haifa, Haifa, Israel.
Journal of Neuroscience Research (Impact Factor: 2.97). 09/2009; 88(2):369-80. DOI: 10.1002/jnr.22203
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT L1 is critically involved in neural development and maturation, activity-dependent synaptic plasticity, and learning processes. Among adult rats, chronic stress protocols that affect L1 functioning also induce impaired cognitive and neural functioning and heightened anxiety reminiscent of stress-induced mood and anxiety disorders. Epidemiological studies indicate that childhood trauma is related predominantly to higher rates of both mood and anxiety disorders in adulthood and is associated with altered limbic system functioning. Exposing rats to stress during the juvenile period ("juvenile stress") has comparable effects and was suggested as a model of induced predisposition for these disorders. This study examined the effects of juvenile stress on rats aversive learning and on L1 expression soon after exposure and in adulthood, both following additional exposure to acute stress and in its absence. Adult juvenile-stressed rats exhibited enhanced cued fear conditioning, reduced novel-setting exploration, and impaired avoidance learning. Furthermore, juvenile stress increased L1 expression in the BLA, CA1, DG, and EC both soon after the stressful experience and during adulthood. It appears that juvenile stress affects the normative maturational decrease in L1 expression. The results support previous indications that juvenile stress alters the maturation of the limbic system and further support a role for L1 regulation in the mechanisms that underlie the predisposition to exhibit mood and/or anxiety disorders in adulthood. Furthermore, the findings support the "network hypothesis," which postulates that information-processing problems within relevant neural networks might underlie stress-induced mood and anxiety disorders.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
53 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Understanding the neurobiological mechanisms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is of vital importance for developing biomarkers and more effective pharmacotherapy for this disorder. The design of bidirectional translational studies addressing all facets of PTSD is needed. Animal models of PTSD are needed not only to capture the complexity of PTSD behavioral characteristics, but also to address experimentally the influence of variety of factors which might determine an individual's vulnerability or resilience to trauma, e.g., genetic predisposition, early-life experience and social support. The current review covers recent translational approaches to bridge the gap between human and animal PTSD research and to create a framework for discovery of biomarkers and novel therapeutics.
    Psychoneuroendocrinology 07/2013; · 5.59 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This article is part of a Special Issue "Puberty and Adolescence". Learning and memory is affected by a myriad of factors, including exposure to stressors and the corresponding rise in circulating glucocorticoids. Nevertheless, the effects of stressors depend on the sex, species, the type of stressor used, the duration of exposure, as well as the developmental time-point in which stressors are experienced. Effects of stress in adolescence, however, have received less attention than other developmental periods. In adolescence, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and brain regions involved in learning and memory, which also richly express corticosteroid receptors, are continuing to develop, and thus the effects of stress exposures would be expected to differ from those in adulthood. We conclude from a review of the available literature in animal models that hippocampal function is particularly sensitive to adolescent stressors, and the effects tend to be most evident several weeks after the exposure, suggesting stressors alter the developmental trajectory of the hippocampus.
    Hormones and Behavior 07/2013; 64(2):364-79. · 3.74 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract We previously observed that social instability stress (SS: daily 1 h isolation and change of cage partners for 16 days) in adolescence, but not in adulthood, decreased context and cue memory after fear conditioning in male rats. Effects of stress are typically sex-specific, and so here we investigated adolescent and adult SS effects in females on the strength of acquired contextual and cued fear conditioning, as well as extinction learning, beginning either the day after the stress procedure or four weeks later. For SS in adolescence, SS females spent more time freezing (fear measure) during extinction than did controls, whereas SS in adulthood had no effect on any measure of fear conditioning. The results also indicated an effect of age: females in late adolescence show more rapid extinction of cue and better memory of extinction of context compared to adult females, which may indicate resilience to acute footshock in adolescence. Thus fear circuitry continues to mature into late adolescence, which may underlie the heightened plasticity in response to chronic stressors of adolescents compared to adults.
    Stress (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 09/2013; · 3.21 Impact Factor

Full-text

View
6 Downloads
Available from
May 20, 2014