Identification and characterization of inosine 5-monophosphate dehydrogenase in Streptococcus suis type 2.
ABSTRACT Streptococcus suis type 2 is a swine pathogen responsible for diverse diseases. Although many virulent factors have been identified and studied, relatively little is known about the pathogenic mechanisms of type 2. The aim of the study was to identify and understand the characterization of Inosine 5-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH). A 957-bp gene, impdh, was identified in the virulent S. suis serotype 2 (SS2), and analysis of the predicted IMPDH sequence revealed IMP dehydrogenase/GMP reductase domain. The gene encoding for the IMPDH of S. suis was cloned and sequenced. The DNA sequence contained an open reading frame encoding for a 318 amino acid polypeptide exhibiting 23% sequence identity with the IMPDH from Streptococcus pyogenes (YP281355) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (ZP00404150). Using the pET(32) expression plasmid, the impdh gene was inducibly overexpressed in Escherichia coli to produce IMPDH with a hexahistidyl N-terminus to permit its purification. The (His)6 IMPDH protein was found to possess functional IMPDH enzymatic activity after the purification. The impdh-knockout SS2 mutant ( Delta IMPDH) constructed in this study was slower in growth and one pH unit higher than SS2-H after 6 h of culturing, and found to be attenuated in mouse models of infection for 2.5 times and not be capable of causing death in porcine models of infection in contrast with the parent SS2-H.
- SourceAvailable from: PubMed Central[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Streptococcal pathogens have evolved to express exoglycosidases, one of which is BgaC β-galactosidase, to deglycosidate host surface glycolconjucates with exposure of the polysaccharide receptor for bacterial adherence. The paradigm BgaC protein is the bgaC product of Streptococcus, a bacterial surface-exposed β-galactosidase. Here we report the functional definition of the BgaC homologue from an epidemic Chinese strain 05ZYH33 of the zoonotic pathogen Streptococcus suis. Bioinformatics analyses revealed that S. suis BgaC shared the conserved active sites (W240, W243 and Y454). The recombinant BgaC protein of S. suis was purified to homogeneity. Enzymatic assays confirmed its activity of β-galactosidase. Also, the hydrolysis activity was found to be region-specific and sugar-specific for the Gal β-1,3-GlcNAc moiety of oligosaccharides. Flow cytometry analyses combined with immune electron microscopy demonstrated that S. suis BgaC is an atypical surface-anchored protein in that it lacks the "LPXTG" motif for typical surface proteins. Integrative evidence from cell lines and mice-based experiments showed that an inactivation of bgaC does not significantly impair the ability of neither adherence nor anti-phagocytosis, and consequently failed to attenuate bacterial virulence, which is somewhat similar to the scenario seen with S. pneumoniae. Therefore we concluded that S. suis BgaC is an atypical surface-exposed protein without the involvement of bacterial virulence.Scientific Reports 01/2014; 4:4140. · 5.08 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (SS2) is an important swine and human pathogen responsible for septicemia and meningitis. The bacterial homologues of eukaryotic-type serine/threonine kinases (ESTKs) have been reported to play critical roles in various cellular processes. To investigate the role of STK in SS2, an isogenic stk mutant strain (Δstk) and a complemented strain (CΔstk) were constructed. The Δstk showed a significant decrease in adherence to HEp-2 cells, compared with the wild-type strain, and a reduced survival ratio in whole blood. In addition, the Δstk exhibited a notable reduced tolerance of environmental stresses including high temperature, acidic pH, oxidative stress, and high osmolarity. More importantly, the Δstk was attenuated in both the CD1 mouse and piglet models of infection. The results of quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that the expressions of a few genes involving in adherence, stress response and virulence were clearly decreased in the Δstk mutant strain. Our data suggest that SsSTK is required for virulence and stress response in SS2.PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(3):e91971. · 3.53 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (SS2) is an important zoonotic pathogen that causes severe disease symptoms in pigs and humans. In the present study, we found one isogenic mutant lacking inosine 5-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) ΔZY05719 was attenuated in pigs compared with the wild-type SS2 strain ZY05719. Comparative proteome analysis of the secreted proteins expression profiles between ZY05719 and ΔZY05719 allowed us to identify Triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) and glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), which were down expressed in the absence of the IMPDH. Both of them are glycolytic enzymes participating in the glycolytic pathway. Compared with ZY05719, ΔZY05719 lost the ability of utilize mannose, which might relate to down expression of TPI and GAPDH. In addition, GAPDH is a well-known factor that involved in adhesion to host cells, and we demonstrated ability of adhesion to HEp-2 and PK15 by ΔZY05719 was significantly weakened, in contrast to ZY05719. The adhesion to host cells is the crucial step to cause infection for pathogen, and the reduction adhesion of ΔZY05719, to some extent illustrates the attenuated virulence of ΔZY05719.Current Microbiology 01/2014; · 1.52 Impact Factor