Psychosocial predictors of adherence to risk-appropriate cervical cancer screening guidelines: A cross sectional study of women in Ohio Appalachia participating in the Community Awareness Resources and Education (CARE) Project

College of Public Health, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.
Preventive Medicine (Impact Factor: 3.09). 10/2009; 50(1-2):74-80. DOI: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2009.09.001
Source: PubMed


We describe factors, in the context of the Social Determinants of Health model, associated with receiving Pap smears within risk-appropriate guidelines (i.e., guidelines that specify screening intervals based upon a woman's individual risk of developing cervical cancer).
Completed in June 2006, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of women from 14 health clinics in Ohio Appalachia pertaining to psychosocial, demographic, biological, and health-related factors. A logistic regression model was constructed to predict whether or not a woman was within risk-appropriate cervical cancer screening guidelines.
Of 562 women with a date of last Pap smear, 380 (68%) were within risk-appropriate guidelines. Logistic regression showed that, compared to women with low-level SES, women with middle- and high-level SES had 3.39 [1.85, 6.21] and 3.86 [2.03, 7.34] times the odds, respectively, of being within risk-appropriate guidelines. Odds of being within guidelines increased 1.09 [1.04, 1.15] fold for each decrease of one major life event. Additionally, women that were financially better off or financially worse off than their parents at the same age had lower odds (0.41 [0.23, 0.73] and 0.49 [0.24, 0.98], respectively) of being within guidelines than women who reported their finances were the same as their parents. Results also showed an interaction between marital status and age at first intercourse (p=0.001).
The results suggest an impact of psychosocial factors on Pap smear testing behaviors, and illustrate the need to examine risk-appropriate interventions to improve screening.

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    • "Previous studies also found that household income was a significant predictor of cervical cancer screening participation [28,29]. It was suggested that to improve cancer screening participation rates in lower income individuals, a primary health care intervention such as an organized program of cervical screening that focuses on deprived groups is needed [30]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Cervical cancer is the sixth most common cause of cancer among Korean women and is one of the most preventable cancers in the world. This study aimed to investigate the change in cervical cancer screening rates, the level of socioeconomic disparities in cervical cancer screening participation, and whether there was a reduction in these disparities between 1998 and 2010. Methods Using the Korean Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, women 30 years or older without a history of cervical cancer and who completed a health questionnaire, physical examination, and nutritional survey were included (n = 17,105). Information about participation in cervical cancer screening was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate the relationship between cervical cancer screening participation and the socioeconomic status of the women. Results The cervical cancer screening rate increased from 40.5% in 1998 to 52.5% in 2010. Socioeconomic disparities influenced participation, and women with lower educational levels and lower household income were less likely to be screened. Compared with the lowest educational level, the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for screening in women with the highest educational level were 1.56 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.05–2.30) in 1998, and 1.44 (95% CI: 1.12–1.87) in 2010. Compared with women with the lowest household income level, the adjusted ORs for screening in women with the highest household income level were 1.80 (95% CI: 1.22–2.68), 2.82 (95% CI: 2.01–3.96), and 1.45 (95% CI: 1.08–1.94) in 2001, 2005, and 2010, respectively. Conclusion Although population-wide progress has been made in participation in cervical cancer screening over the 12-year period, socioeconomic status remained an important factor in reducing compliance with cancer screening.
    BMC Public Health 06/2013; 13(1):553. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-13-553 · 2.26 Impact Factor
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    • "Administrative data is considered accurate but lacks concurrent data on the personal characteristics that may drive or inhibit service use. The small number of studies that have combined personal and administrative data have been limited to unrepresentative samples such as primary health care settings that may exclude women who do not frequent health services [28]. "
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    ABSTRACT: National screening programs have reduced cervical cancer mortality; however participation in these programs varies according to women's personal and social characteristics. Research into these inequalities has been limited by reliance on self-reported service use data that is potentially biased, or administrative data that lacks personal detail. We address these limitations and extend existing research by examining rates and correlates of cervical screening in a large epidemiological survey with linked administrative data. The cross-sectional sample included 1685 women aged 44-48 and 64-68 years from the Australian Capital Territory and Queanbeyan, Australia. Relative risk was assessed by logistic regression models and summary Population Attributable Risk (PAR) was used to quantify the effect of inequalities on rates of cervical cancer screening. Overall, 60.5% of women participated in screening over the two-year period recommended by Australian guidelines. Screening participation was associated with having children, moderate or high use of health services, employment, reported lifetime history of drug use, and better physical functioning. Conversely, rates of cervical screening were lower amongst women who were older, reliant on welfare, obese, current smokers, reported childhood sexual abuse, and those with anxiety symptoms. A summary PAR showed that effective targeting of women with readily observable risk-factors (no children, no partner, receiving income support payments, not working, obese, current smoker, anxiety, poor physical health, and low overall health service use) could potentially reduce overall non-participation in screening by 74%. This study illustrates a valuable method for investigating the personal determinants of health service use by combining representative survey data with linked administrative records. Reliable knowledge about the characteristics that predict uptake of cervical cancer screening services will inform targeted health promotion efforts.
    BMC Health Services Research 02/2012; 12(1):34. DOI:10.1186/1472-6963-12-34 · 1.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Screening has become one of our best tools for early detection and prevention of cancer. The group-randomized trial is the most rigorous experimental design for evaluating multilevel interventions. However, identifying the proper sample size for a group-randomized trial requires reliable estimates of intraclass correlation (ICC) for screening outcomes, which are not available to researchers. We present crude and adjusted ICC estimates for cancer screening outcomes for various levels of aggregation (physician, clinic, and county) and provide an example of how these ICC estimates may be used in the design of a future trial. Investigators working in the area of cancer screening were contacted and asked to provide crude and adjusted ICC estimates using the analysis of variance method estimator. Of the 29 investigators identified, estimates were obtained from 10 investigators who had relevant data. ICC estimates were calculated from 13 different studies, with more than half of the studies collecting information on colorectal screening. In the majority of cases, ICC estimates could be adjusted for age, education, and other demographic characteristics, leading to a reduction in the ICC. ICC estimates varied considerably by cancer site and level of aggregation of the groups. Previously, only two articles had published ICCs for cancer screening outcomes. We have complied more than 130 crude and adjusted ICC estimates covering breast, cervical, colon, and prostate screening and have detailed them by level of aggregation, screening measure, and study characteristics. We have also demonstrated their use in planning a future trial and the need for the evaluation of the proposed interval estimator for binary outcomes under conditions typically seen in GRTs.
    JNCI Monographs 04/2010; 2010(40):97-103. DOI:10.1093/jncimonographs/lgq011
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