Malnutrition and intestinal parasitic infections in school children of Gondar, North West Ethiopia.
ABSTRACT In developing countries, malnutrition is a considerable health problem with prevalence ranges of 4-46%, with 1-10% severely malnourished.
This study aimed to determine the prevalence of malnutrition and intestinal parasitoses and identify risk factors of malnutrition in schoolchildren.
A cross-sectional study was carried out on 322 schoolchildren, of age 6 to 14 years, attending private and government primary schools, in Gonder town, North West Ethiopia. The study was conducted from December 2006 to February 2007. Nutritional status of these children was determined using anthropometric parameters (weight-for-age, height-for-age and weight-for-height). Epi Info 2000 software was used to evaluate anthropometric results of each individual and formol-ether concentration technique was employed to identify parasites.
The prevalence of underweight, stunting, wasting and intestinal parasitoses was 34.8%, 27%, 50% and 55.6%, respectively. Parasites encountered during the study were Ascaris lumbricoides (17.8%), Trichuiris trichiura (3.4%), hookworm (4.3%), Giardia lamblia (9%), Entamoeba histolytica (2.1%), Schistosoma mansoni (2.4%), Hymenolepis nana (4.7%) and Enterobius vermicularis (0.31%), respectively, in single infections. Only two cases of Strongyloides stercoralis was found in multiple infections and none in single infections. The prevalence of multiple parasitoses was 10.9%. Maternal literacy status, sex and age of the child were significantly associated with malnutrition (p < 0.05).
Even though chronic type of malnutrition (stunting) was decreasing, indicators of acute type of malnutrition were increasing at a higher rate in the area. Implementation of maternal education and school feeding programs, avoidance of students from getting in contact with waste and river water were recommended to avoid malnutrition and intestinal parasitoses in children of the study area.
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ABSTRACT: Research on associated risk factors for intestinal parasitic infections and malnutrition in various geographic regions is needed for the development of appropriate control strategies. The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors associated with intestinal parasitic infections, anaemia, and malnutrition in school children, living in urban and rural areas of northern Ethiopia. Six hundred school children, aged 6-15 years, were randomly selected in a cross-sectional survey from 12 primary schools. Sociodemographic and anthropometric data were collected. Faecal samples were examined using direct, concentration, and the Kato-Katz methods. Urine specimens were analysed for Schistosoma haematobium ova. Haemoglobin was measured using a HemoCue spectrometer. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitosis was 72% (95% confidence interval (CI): 66-76%). The prevalence of anaemia, stunting, and thinness were 11% (95% CI: 8-13%), 35% (95% CI: 31-38%), and 34% (95% CI: 30-38%), respectively. Poor personal hygiene habits were generally associated with anaemia and nutritional deficiency (low body mass index). Multivariate logistic regression models related Schistosoma mansoni infection with boys. Boys were also more likely to be malnourished. Hookworm infection was associated with anaemia and unhygienic finger nails. Access to clean water and latrines, with some hygiene and sanitation communication activities, could improve health of children in Ethiopia. The use of smartphone technology in demographic data collection proved to be successful. The potential advantage offered by this technology for parasitological field surveys merits further investigation.Pathogens and global health. 03/2013; 107(2):58-65.
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ABSTRACT: The administration of viable Bifidobacterium animalis was tested to induce resistance against Strongyloides venezuelensis infection in mice. Effects on parasite burden, worm length, egg output, and intestinal mucosal histology were evaluated. The oral administration of B. animalis, strain 04450B, starting 14 days before the inoculation of nematode larvae significantly decreased the worm burden and egg output. In probiotic treated animals, the percent reduction of adult worms in the intestine was of 33% and the reduction of egg production was of 21%, compared with those of the control group. The duodenum villous height and villous/crypt ratio were significantly higher in probiotic-treated mice, indicating that this group could be experiencing less intestinal damage. The present findings revealed that the administration of B. animalis for the amelioration of host response to nematode infections is biologically plausible and could have some potential for impacting public health. Meanwhile, further study is needed to delineate the nature and identity of the factor(s) involved in these beneficial effects.Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo 01/2014; 56(2):105-9. · 0.96 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Parasitic diseases are the second most frequent cause of outpatient morbidity in Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Lake Tana Basin, northwest Ethiopia, from November 2007 to February 2008, to assess the magnitude and associated risk factors for parasitic diseases, including human fascioliasis. We examined 520 stool samples from randomly selected schoolchildren in six schools by microscopy. Rapid sedimentation and Kato-Katz techniques were used to detect and count Fasciola and Schistosoma eggs. The formol-ether concentration method was used for the identification of other helminth eggs, larvae and cysts of protozoan parasites. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections was 71.3% (95% CI 67.3-75.1%). Hookworm was the predominant intestinal parasite (23.5%, 95% CI 19.8-27.1%), followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (18.5%, 95% CI 15.2-21.9%) and Schistosoma mansoni (16.7%, 95% CI 13.5-19.9%). One hundred and sixty-three (31.4%) children had multiple parasitic infections. The most relevant finding was a prevalence of Fasciola spp. of 3.3% in an area where only sporadic cases have been reported previously. The risk of Fasciola spp. infection was significantly associated with raw vegetable consumption, use of unsafe drinking water sources, irrigation practices and sheep and/or cattle ownership. Irrigation practices, male gender, raw vegetable consumption and use of unsafe drinking water sources were risk factors for S. mansoni infection. A high prevalence of parasitic infections among children in the region was found, including a relatively high prevalence of Fasciola spp. infection. Epidemiological studies on the magnitude of parasitic infections in different regions will enable high-risk communities to be identified and allow for planning of appropriate interventions.Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 08/2013; 107(8):480-486. · 1.93 Impact Factor