Community Acquired Influenza Requiring Hospitalization: Vaccine Status Is Unrelated to Morbidity in Children With Cancer
Department of Pediatrics, The University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. Pediatric Blood & Cancer
(Impact Factor: 2.39).
01/2010; 54(1):79-82. DOI: 10.1002/pbc.22228
Community acquired influenza can be severe and there are few data regarding hospitalization for children with cancer and influenza. Association between prior vaccination and infection severity has not been studied, although vaccination is standard practice.
Patients with malignancy or prior stem cell transplant (SCT) were identified using a database of children with laboratory confirmed influenza (2000-2005). Other data collected included receipt of vaccine, absolute neutrophil count (ANC) and absolute lymphocyte count (ALC). These were compared with intensive care unit (ICU) stay, respiratory complications and hospital days.
There were 39 patients with laboratory-confirmed influenza with a median age of 6.9 years. Twenty-four (62%) were on cancer therapy at time of infection and 18 (46%) had received the influenza vaccination that season. Measures of immune status included ANC at time of infection (median 1,530 cells/microl; inter-quartile range, 315, 4347), presence of graft versus host disease 2 (5%) and steroid therapy 4 (10%) patients. All had a low ALC (median 448 cells/microl; IQR 189, 861). Respiratory complications occurred in 8 (20%), ICU admissions in 4 (10%) and death in 2 (5%) patients. Median hospital stay was 2 days. All ICU admissions occurred in unvaccinated patients (P = 0.1). Vaccine status, ANC (<1,000 cells/microl vs. >1,000) and ALC (<500 cells/microl vs. >500) were not associated with length of stay or respiratory complications.
Influenza infection can be severe in children with cancer and complications occur despite vaccination. Prospective evaluation of vaccine response is worthy of future study.
Available from: Roberto Carloni
- "Human influenza infection is associated with a high risk of hospitalization for serious complications in children with chronic conditions [1,2]. Mechanisms that increase the risk of influenza complications in children with chronic diseases depend on the specific underlying disease. "
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Despite recommendations by Health Authorities, influenza immunization coverage remains low in children with chronic diseases. Different medical providers involved in the management of children with chronic conditions may affect the pattern of influenza vaccine recommendations and coverage. The likelihood of vaccination by type of provider in children with chronic conditions is poorly understood. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to analyze the pattern and the effect of recommendations for seasonal influenza immunization provided by different physician profiles to families of children with chronic diseases and to measure the frequency of immunization in the study population.
We recruited children with chronic diseases aged 6 months–18 years who subsequently presented to specialty clinics for routine follow-up visits, during spring 2009, in three Italian Regions Families of children with chronic diseases were interviewed during routine visits at reference centers through a face-to-face interview. We analyzed the following immunization predictors: having received a recommendation toward influenza immunization by a health provider; child’s sex and age; mothers and fathers’ age; parental education and employment; underlying child’s disease; number of contacts with health providers in the previous year. Influenza immunization coverage was calculated as the proportion of children who received at least one dose of seasonal influenza vaccine in the previous season. We calculated prevalence ratios and we used a generalized linear model with Poisson family, log link and robust error variance to assess the effect of socio-demographic variables, underlying diseases, and recommendations provided by physicians on influenza immunization.
We enrolled 275 families of children with chronic diseases. Overall influenza coverage was 57.5%, with a low of 25% in children with neurological diseases and a high of 91.2% in those with cystic fibrosis. While 10.6% of children who did not receive any recommendation toward influenza immunization were immunized, among those who received a recommendation 87.5-94.7% did, depending on the health professional providing the recommendation. Receiving a recommendation by any provider is a strong predictor of immunization (PR = 8.5 95% CI 4.6;15.6) Most children received an immunization recommendation by a specialty (25.8%) or a family pediatrician (23.3%) and were immunized by a family pediatrician (58.7%) or a community vaccinator (55.2%).
Receiving a specific recommendation by a physician is a strong determinant of being immunized against seasonal influenza in children with chronic diseases independently of other factors. Heterogeneity exists among children with different chronic diseases regarding influenza recommendation despite international guidelines. Increasing the frequency of appropriate recommendations toward influenza immunization by physicians is a single powerful intervention that may increase coverage in children with chronic conditions.
BMC Public Health 11/2012; 12(1):984. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-12-984 · 2.26 Impact Factor
Archives of Disease in Childhood - Education and Practice 11/2010; 95(6):198. DOI:10.1136/adc.2010.192419 · 1.45 Impact Factor
Available from: Mary Taj
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ABSTRACT: Children with cancer have an increased susceptibility to influenza infection. The objective of this study was to assess the immunogenicity of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 vaccine in children with cancer.
Children were recruited from the Royal Marsden Hospital, England, during November 2009. The vaccination schedule consisted of 2 doses of an AS03(B)-adjuvanted vaccine given at days 0 and 21. Serological analysis was performed on blood samples obtained at day 0 and day 42. The primary immunological end point was the seroconversion rate, which was defined as the proportion of subjects with an individual 4-fold increase in hemagglutination inhibition titer and a postvaccination hemagglutination inhibition titer ≥1:32.
Fifty-four children with a median age of 6.3 years (range, 1.4-16.6 years) were vaccinated and had samples taken for serological analysis. Twenty-four (44.4%) of 54 children demonstrated seroconversion. Seroconversion rates were 33.3% (9 of 27) among children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, 36.4% (4 of 11) among those with lymphoma or other leukemias, 66.7% (6 of 9) among those with brain tumors, and 71.4% (5 of 7) among those with other solid tumors. Seroconversion occurred in 4 (28.6%) of 14 children receiving acute lymphoblastic leukemia maintenance therapy. Univariate analysis showed significantly higher responses among children with solid tumors, compared with those with hematological malignancies (11 [68.8%] of 16 vs 13 [34.2%] of 38; P = .03), and among those not receiving treatment, compared with those receiving treatment (7 [87.5%] of 8 vs 17 [37.0%] of 46; P = .02). Multivariable analysis showed that age, cancer type, and lymphopenia did not influence seroconversion rates.
These data suggest that this AS03(B)-adjuvanted pandemic (H1N1) 2009 vaccine can induce limited but useful protective immune responses in children with cancer.
Clinical Infectious Diseases 11/2010; 51(12):e95-104. DOI:10.1086/657403 · 8.89 Impact Factor
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