Circadian Rhythm Disorders
ABSTRACT Circadian rhythm sleep disorders occur when individuals attempt to sleep at the wrong circadian time. The misalignment between the internal circadian timing system and the external environment is typically due to either an alteration in the functioning of the circadian timing system (e.g., delayed or advanced sleep phase disorder) or to changes in the external environment (e.g., jet lag). However, the clinical presentation of most of the circadian rhythm sleep disorders is influenced by a combination of physiologic, behavioral, and environmental factors. These disorders lead to complaints of insomnia and excessive daytime sleepiness, with impairment in important areas of functioning and quality of life. Current treatments, such as timed exposure to bright light and exogenous melatonin, primarily serve to align the timing of circadian rhythms or increase the strength of the circadian signal. Although these treatments are effective, their use in clinical practice has been limited by the availability of adequate diagnostic tools and large-scale randomized controlled clinical trials. The rapid advances in our understanding of the molecular, cellular, and physiologic basis of circadian regulation and the pathophysiology of these disorders will lead to more targeted and effective treatments.
- SourceAvailable from: Pandi-Perumal Seithikurippu Ratnas
Dataset: When insomnia is not just insomnia
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ABSTRACT: Recent scientific evidences have brought a paradigm shift in our approach towards the concepts of insomnia and its management. The differentiation between primary and secondary insomnia was proved more hypothetical than actual and based upon the current evidences insomnia subtypes described in earlier system have been lumped into one-Insomnia Disorder. Research in this field suggests that insomnia occurring during psychiatric or medical disorders has a bidirectional and interactive relationship with and coexisting medical and psychiatric illnesses. The new approach looks to coexisting psychiatric or medical disorders as comorbid conditions and hence specifying two coexisting conditions. Therefore, the management and treatment plans should address both conditions. A number of sleep disorders may present with insomnia like symptoms and these disorders should be treated efficiently in order to alleviate insomnia symptoms. In such cases, a thorough history from the patient and his/her bed-partner is warranted. Moreover, some patients may need polysomnography or other diagnostic tests like actigraphy to confirm the diagnosis of the underlying sleep disorder. DSM-5 classification system of sleep-wake disorders has several advantages, e.g., it has seen insomnia across different dimensions to make it clinically more useful; it focuses on the assessment of severity and guides the mental health professional when to refer a patient of insomnia to a sleep specialist; lastly, it may encourage the psychiatrists to opt for the Sleep Medicine as a career.Asian Journal of Psychiatry 09/2014; 12. DOI:10.1016/j.ajp.2014.09.003