Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase tissue distribution and cellular localization in mice: implications for its biological functions.
ABSTRACT Earlier studies have suggested that indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) has a wide tissue distribution in mammals. However, detailed information on its cellular localization and also the levels of expression in various tissues is still scarce. In the present study, we sought to determine the cellular localization of IDO and also to quantify the level of its expression in various mouse tissues by using the branched DNA signal amplification assay, Western blotting, and immunohistochemical staining. The highest levels of constitutive IDO expression were found to be selectively present in the caput of epididymis, except for its initial segment. IDO expression was also detected inside the luminal compartment and even in the stereocilia within this region. In the prostate, high levels of IDO were selectively expressed in the capsular cells. In addition, high levels of IDO expression were also selectively detected in certain types of cells in the placenta, spleen, thymus, lung, and digestive tract. Notably, the morphological features of most of the positively stained cells in these organs closely resembled those of antigen-presenting cells. Based on the tissue distribution and cellular localization characteristics of IDO, it is hypothesized that its expression may serve two main functions: one is to deplete tryptophan in an enclosed microenvironment (such as in the epididymal duct lumen) to prevent bacterial or viral infection, and the other is to produce bioactive tryptophan catabolites that would serve to suppress T-cell-mediated immune responses against self-antigens, fetal antigens, or allogeneic antigens, in different situations.
Article: CDllc+ cells modulate pulmonary immune responses by production of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Interactions between antigen-presenting cells and T cells can result in T cell activation or suppression. With the use of RNA analysis, high-performance liquid chromatography, mixed leukocyte reactions (MLRs), and animal models, the current study reports that lung interstitial antigen-presenting cells (iAPCs, CDllc+) suppress T cell responses in vitro and in vivo by production of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), an enzyme that catabolizes tryptophan to its byproduct, kynurenine. IDO mRNA expression was unique to lung iAPCs, as cells similarly isolated from the liver and spleen did not express IDO constitutively, or in response to interferon-gamma. Lung iAPCs suppressed proliferation of allogeneic T cells, correlating with increased kynurenine levels; and blockade of IDO activity with 1-methyl-DL-tryptohan (1-MT) or addition of exogenous tryptophan recovered T cell proliferation in MLRs. In contrast, liver and splenic iAPCs were potent stimulators of T cells in MLRs, and IDO inhibition had no effect on T cell responses. In vivo studies showed that systemic blockade of IDO resulted in spontaneous proliferation in lung T cells and pulmonary inflammation. Finally, overexpressing IDO in lung transplants abrogated acute allograft rejection, a T cell-mediated disease. Collectively these data show that lung iAPCs contribute to local regulation of cellular immune responses by production of IDO.American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology 04/2004; 30(3):311-8. · 5.13 Impact Factor
[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase purified to apparent homogeneity from rabbit intestine was inhibited by scavengers for superoxide anion such as superoxide dismutase and 1,2-dihydroxybenzene-3,5-disulfonic acid (Tiron). On the other hand, beta-carotene and 1,4-diazobicyclo-(2,2,2)-octane, scavengers for singlet oxygen, did not affect the enzyme activity significantly. The degree of inhibition of the dioxygenase by superoxide dismutase preparations from bovine erythrocytes, green peas, spinach leaves, and Escherichia coli paralleled that observed with these dismutase preparations on the aerobic reduction of cytochrome c by xanthine oxidase and its substrate. The pH profiles of the inhibition by dismutase of the dioxygenase and cytochrome c reduction were also similar and the maximal inhibition was observed around pH 10 in both cases. The degree of inhibition was not affected by the concentration of substrate but was a function of the concentration of dismutase. It was inversely related to the concentrations of the dioxygenase and its cofactors, ascorbic acid and methylene blue, both of which were required for maximum activity. Ascorbic acid could be replaced either by xanthine oxidase and its substrate, or by tetrabutylammonium superoxide prepared by electrolytic reduction of molecular oxygen, or by potassium superoxide. When limited amounts of superoxide anion were added to the reaction mixture containing a substrate amount of the dioxygenase, the ratio of the amount of superoxide anion added to that of the product formed was approximately unity both under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Taken together, these findings indicate that superoxide anion, rather than molecular oxygen, is utilized as substrate by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase.Journal of Biological Chemistry 09/1975; 250(15):5960-6. · 4.77 Impact Factor
Article: Cutting edge: induced indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase expression in dendritic cell subsets suppresses T cell clonal expansion.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In mice, immunoregulatory APCs express the dendritic cell (DC) marker CD11c, and one or more distinctive markers (CD8alpha, B220, DX5). In this study, we show that expression of the tryptophan-degrading enzyme indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO) is selectively induced in specific splenic DC subsets when mice were exposed to the synthetic immunomodulatory reagent CTLA4-Ig. CTLA4-Ig did not induce IDO expression in macrophages or lymphoid cells. Induction of IDO completely blocked clonal expansion of T cells from TCR transgenic mice following adoptive transfer, whereas CTLA4-Ig treatment did not block T cell clonal expansion in IDO-deficient recipients. Thus, IDO expression is an inducible feature of specific subsets of DCs, and provides a potential mechanistic explanation for their T cell regulatory properties.The Journal of Immunology 09/2003; 171(4):1652-5. · 5.79 Impact Factor