Abeta immunotherapy: intracerebral sequestration of Abeta by an anti-Abeta monoclonal antibody 266 with high affinity to soluble Abeta.
ABSTRACT Amyloid beta (Abeta) immunotherapy is emerging as a promising disease-modifying therapy for Alzheimer's disease, although the precise mechanisms whereby anti-Abeta antibodies act against amyloid deposition and cognitive deficits remain elusive. To test the "peripheral sink" theory, which postulates that the effects of anti-Abeta antibodies in the systemic circulation are to promote the Abeta efflux from brain to blood, we studied the clearance of (125)I-Abeta(1-40) microinjected into mouse brains after intraperitoneal administration of an anti-Abeta monoclonal antibody 266. (125)I-Abeta(1-40) was rapidly eliminated from brains with a half-life of approximately 30 min in control mice, whereas 266 significantly retarded the elimination of Abeta, presumably due to formation of Abeta-antibody complex in brains. Administration of 266 to APP transgenic mice increased the levels of monomer Abeta species in an antibody-bound form, without affecting that of total Abeta. We propose a novel mechanism of Abeta immunotherapy by the class of anti-Abeta antibodies that preferentially bind soluble Abeta, i.e., intracerebral, rather than peripheral, sequestration of soluble, monomer form of Abeta, thereby preventing the accumulation of multimeric toxic Abeta species in brains.
Article: Naturally occurring antibodies interfere with β-Amyloid metabolism and improve cognition in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer´s disease 24 hours after single treatmentTranslational Psychiatry. 01/2013; 3(e•):doi:10.1038/tp.2012.151.
Article: Cognitive Enhancers (Nootropics). Part 3: Drugs Interacting with Targets other than Receptors or Enzymes. Disease-modifying Drugs.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Cognitive enhancers (nootropics) are drugs to treat cognition deficits in patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, stroke, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, or aging. Cognition refers to a capacity for information processing, applying knowledge, and changing preferences. It involves memory, attention, executive functions, perception, language, and psychomotor functions. The term nootropics was coined in 1972 when memory enhancing properties of piracetam were observed in clinical trials. In the meantime, hundreds of drugs have been evaluated in clinical trials or in preclinical experiments. To classify the compounds, a concept is proposed assigning drugs to 19 categories according to their mechanism(s) of action, in particular drugs interacting with receptors, enzymes, ion channels, nerve growth factors, re-uptake transporters, antioxidants, metal chelators, and disease modifying drugs, meaning small molecules, vaccines, and monoclonal antibodies interacting with amyloid-β and tau. For drugs, whose mechanism of action is not known, they are either classified according to structure, e.g., peptides, or their origin, e.g., natural products. The review covers the evolution of research in this field over the last 25 years.Journal of Alzheimer's disease: JAD 11/2012; · 3.74 Impact Factor
Article: Naturally occurring autoantibodies interfere with β-amyloid metabolism and improve cognition in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease 24 h after single treatment[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: There is evidence that naturally occurring antibodies directed against Aβ (nAbs-Aβ) have a role in Aβ-metabolism and Aβ-clearance. The presence of nAbs-Aβ leads to a reduction in amyloid fibrillation and thus a reduction in their toxicity. We investigated the effects of nAbs-Aβ in respect to oligomerization and used the Tg2576 transgenic mouse model in order to investigate the rapid effect with a single-dose (24 h) on oligomer breakdown and cytokine secretion along with immunohistochemical characterization of synaptic plasticity. nAbs-Aβ were able to reduce toxic oligomer concentration with an increase in Aβ-monomers. Cytokine secretion was significantly reduced. Synaptic plasticity was also improved after administration of nAbs. Finally, single treatment lead to a significant improvement in cognition. This study demonstrates the efficacy of nAbs-Aβ and presents evidence that several hallmarks of the disease are targeted by nAbs-Aβ.Translational Psychiatry. 03/2013; 3(e236).