The roles of chemokines in rabies virus infection: overexpression may not always be beneficial.
ABSTRACT It was found previously that induction of innate immunity, particularly chemokines, is an important mechanism of rabies virus (RABV) attenuation. To evaluate the effect of overexpression of chemokines on RABV infection, chemokines macrophage inflammatory protein 1alpha (MIP-1alpha), RANTES, and IP-10 were individually cloned into the genome of attenuated RABV strain HEP-Flury. These recombinant RABVs were characterized in vitro for growth properties and expression of chemokines. It was found that all the recombinant viruses grew as well as the parent virus, and each of the viruses expressed the intended chemokine in a dose-dependent manner. When these viruses were evaluated for pathogenicity in the mouse model, it was found that overexpression of MIP-1alpha further decreased RABV pathogenicity by inducing a transient innate immune response. In contrast, overexpression of RANTES or IP-10 increased RABV pathogenicity by causing neurological diseases, which is due to persistent and high-level expression of chemokines, excessive infiltration and accumulation of inflammatory cells in the central nervous system, and severe enhancement of blood-brain barrier permeability. These studies indicate that overexpression of chemokines, although important in controlling virus infection, may not always be beneficial to the host.
- SourceAvailable from: Rodrigo Guabiraba
Article: Targeting CCL5 in inflammation.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Introduction: Chemokines play important roles in inflammation and in immune responses. This article will discuss the current literature on the C-C chemokine ligand 5 (CCL5), and whether it is a therapeutic target in the context of various allergic, autoimmune or infectious diseases. Areas covered: Small-molecule inhibitors, chemokine and chemokine receptor-deficient mice, antibodies and modified chemokines are the current tools available for CCL5 research, and there are several ongoing clinical trials targeting the CCL5 receptors, CCR1, CCR3 and CCR5. There are fewer studies specifically targeting the chemokine itself and clinical studies with anti-CCL5 antibodies are still to be carried out. Expert opinion: Although clinical trials are strongly biased toward HIV treatment and prevention with blockers of CCR5, the therapeutic potential for CCL5 and its receptors in other diseases is relevant. Overall, it is not likely that specific targeting of CCL5 will result in new adjunct strategies for the treatment of infectious diseases with a major inflammatory component. However, targeting CCL5 could result in novel therapies for chronic inflammatory diseases, where it may decrease inflammatory responses and fibrosis, and certain solid tumors, where it may have a role in angiogenesis.Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets 10/2013; · 4.90 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Noroviruses are an emerging threat to public health, causing large health and economic costs, including at least 200,000 deaths annually. The inability to replicate in cell culture or small animal models has limited the understanding of the interaction between human noroviruses and their hosts. However an alternative strategy to gain insights into norovirus pathogenesis is to study murine norovirus (MNV-1) that replicates in cultured macrophages. While the innate immune response is central to the resolution of norovirus disease, the adaptive immune response is required for viral clearance. The specific responses of infected macrophages and dendritic cells to infection drive the adaptive immune response, with chemokines playing an important role. In this study we have conducted microarray analysis of RAW264.7 macrophages infected with MNV-1 and examined the changes in chemokine transcriptional expression during infection. While the majority of chemokines showed no change, there was specific up-regulation in chemokines reflective of a bias towards a Th1 response, specifically CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CXCL2, CXCL10 and CXCL11. These changes in gene expression were reflected in protein levels as determined by ELISA assay. This virus-induced chemokine response will affect the resolution of infection and may limit the humoral response to norovirus infection.Virus Research 12/2013; · 2.75 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Microglia plays a crucial role during virus pathogenesis in the central nervous system (CNS). Infection by rabies virus (RABV) causes a fatal infection in the CNS of all warm-blooded animals. However, the microglial responses to RABV infection have been scarcely reported. To better understand microglia-RABV interactions at the transcriptional level, a genome wide gene expression profile in mouse microglial cells line BV2 was performed using microarray analysis. The global messenger RNA changes in murine microglial cell line BV2 after 12, 24 and 48 h of infection with rabies virus CVS-11 strain were investigated using DNA Microarray and quantitative real-time PCR. Infection of CVS-11 at different time points induced different gene expression signatures in BV2 cells. The expression patterns of differentially expressed genes are shown by K-means clustering in four clusters in RABV- or mock-infected microglia at 12, 24 and 48 hours post infection (hpi). Gene ontology and network analysis of the differentially expressed genes in responses to RABV were performed by the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis system (IPA, Ingenuity® Systems, http://www.ingenuity.com). The results revealed that 28 genes were significantly up-regulated (P<0.01) and 1 gene was significantly down-regulated (P<0.01) in microglial cells at 12 hpi, 72 genes were significantly up-regulated (P<0.01) and 24 genes were significantly down-regulated (P<0.01) at 24 hpi, and 671 genes were significantly up-regulated (P<0.01) and 190 genes were significantly down-regulated (P<0.01) at 48 hpi. Genes in BV2 were significantly regulated (P<0.01) in response to RABV infection and they were found to be interferon stimulated genes (Isg15, Isg20, Oasl1, Oasl2, Ifit2, Irf7 and Ifi203), chemokine genes (Ccl5, Cxcl10 and Ccrl2) and the proinflammatory factor gene (Interleukin 6). The results indicated that the differentially expressed genes from microglial cells after RABV infection were mainly involved in innate immune responses, inflammatory responses and host antiviral responses.Infection, genetics and evolution: journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases 09/2013; · 3.22 Impact Factor