Progress in Assessing Physical Function in Arthritis: PROMIS Short Forms and Computerized Adaptive Testing

Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, United States
The Journal of Rheumatology (Impact Factor: 3.19). 10/2009; 36(9):2061-6. DOI: 10.3899/jrheum.090358
Source: PubMed


Assessing self-reported physical function/disability with the Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index (HAQ) and other instruments has become central in arthritis research. Item response theory (IRT) and computerized adaptive testing (CAT) techniques can increase reliability and statistical power. IRT-based instruments can improve measurement precision substantially over a wider range of disease severity. These modern methods were applied and the magnitude of improvement was estimated.
A 199-item physical function/disability item bank was developed by distilling 1865 items to 124, including Legacy Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) and Physical Function-10 items, and improving precision through qualitative and quantitative evaluation in over 21,000 subjects, which included about 1500 patients with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. Four new instruments, (A) Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information (PROMIS) HAQ, which evolved from the original (Legacy) HAQ; (B) "best" PROMIS 10; (C) 20-item static (short) forms; and (D) simulated PROMIS CAT, which sequentially selected the most informative item, were compared with the HAQ.
Online and mailed administration modes yielded similar item and domain scores. The HAQ and PROMIS HAQ 20-item scales yielded greater information content versus other scales in patients with more severe disease. The "best" PROMIS 20-item scale outperformed the other 20-item static forms over a broad range of 4 standard deviations. The 10-item simulated PROMIS CAT outperformed all other forms.
Improved items and instruments yielded better information. The PROMIS HAQ is currently available and considered validated. The new PROMIS short forms, after validation, are likely to represent further improvement. CAT-based physical function/disability assessment offers superior performance over static forms of equal length.

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    • "Use of CAT-based administrations typically leads to a smaller number of items per assessment, but yield superior efficiency in domain assessment and greater precision (i.e. lower standard error) compared to traditional, non-adaptive testing forms [15]. Higher scores on average pain intensity, anger, and depression signified greater severity of these symptoms, while higher scores on PROMIS Physical Function and PROMIS Satisfaction with Social Roles and Activities reflected higher (more positive) ratings on these measures. "
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    ABSTRACT: Individuals with chronic pain show a greater vulnerability to depression or anger than those without chronic pain, and also show greater interpersonal difficulties and physical disability. The current study examined data from 675 individuals with chronic pain during their initial visits to a tertiary care pain clinic using assessments from Stanford University's Collaborative Health Outcomes Information Registry (CHOIR). Using a path modeling analysis, the mediating roles of PROMIS Physical Function and PROMIS Satisfaction with Social Roles and Activities were tested between pain intensity and PROMIS Depression and Anger. Pain intensity significantly predicted both depression and anger, and both physical function and satisfaction with social roles mediated these relationships when modeled in separate 1-mediator models. Notably, however, when modeled together, ratings of satisfaction with social roles mediated the relationship between physical function and both anger and depression. Our results suggest that the process by which chronic pain disrupts emotional well-being involves both physical function and disrupted social functioning. However, the more salient factor in determining pain-related emotional distress appears to be disruption of social relationships, rather than global physical impairment. These results highlight the particular importance of social factors to pain-related distress, and highlight social functioning as an important target for clinical intervention in chronic pain.
    Pain 07/2015; DOI:10.1097/j.pain.0000000000000313 · 5.21 Impact Factor
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    • "loss of productivity) and mortality. We substitute the Improved HAQ for the original HAQ-DI to assess disability because of its improved responsiveness and precision [48–50]. The NEO Five-Factor Inventory is a validated 60-item questionnaire that measures the five domains of personality including Neuroticism, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, and Openness [51]. "
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    ABSTRACT: BackgroundKnee osteoarthritis (OA) causes pain and long-term disability with annual healthcare costs exceeding $185 billion in the United States. Few medical remedies effectively influence the course of the disease. Finding effective treatments to maintain function and quality of life in patients with knee OA is one of the national priorities identified by the Institute of Medicine. We are currently conducting the first comparative effectiveness and cost-effectiveness randomized trial of Tai Chi versus a physical-therapy regimen in a sample of patients with symptomatic and radiographically confirmed knee OA. This article describes the design and conduct of this trial.Methods/DesignA single-center, 52-week, comparative effectiveness randomized controlled trial of Tai Chi versus a standardized physical-therapy regimen is being conducted at an urban tertiary medical center in Boston, Massachusetts. The study population consists of adults ≥ 40 years of age with symptomatic and radiographic knee OA (American College of Rheumatology criteria). Participants are randomly allocated to either 12 weeks of Tai Chi (2x/week) or Physical Therapy (2x/week for 6 weeks, followed by 6 weeks of rigorously monitored home exercise). The primary outcome measure is pain (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities WOMAC) subscale at 12 weeks. Secondary outcomes include WOMAC stkiffness and function domain scores, lower extremity strength and power, functional balance, physical performance tests, psychological and psychosocial functioning, durability effects, health related quality of life, and healthcare utilization at 12, 24 and 52 weeks.DiscussionThis study will be the first randomized comparative-effectiveness and cost-effectiveness trial of Tai Chi versus Physical Therapy in a large symptomatic knee OA population with long-term follow up. We present here a robust and well-designed randomized comparative-effectiveness trial that also explores multiple outcomes to elucidate the potential mechanisms of mind-body effect for a major disabling disease with substantial health burdens and economic costs. Results of this study are expected to have important public health implications for the large and growing population with knee OA.Trial identifier: NCT01258985Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1472-6882-14-333) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
    BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 09/2014; 14(1):333. DOI:10.1186/1472-6882-14-333 · 2.02 Impact Factor
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    • "Although often extensively validated, key limitations of these traditional questionnaires remain their static nature and limited measurement range and measurement precision, frequently leading to ceiling and floor effects and limited sensitivity to change [3]–[8]. Recent studies have suggested that these shortcomings may be overcome by item response theory (IRT) based item banking [9], [10]. IRT calibrated item banks can serve as a platform for tailored assessment of patient-reported outcomes, through developing targeted short forms or computerized adaptive tests (CATs). "
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    ABSTRACT: To calibrate the Dutch-Flemish version of the PROMIS physical function (PF) item bank in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and to evaluate cross-cultural measurement equivalence with US general population and RA data. Data were collected from RA patients enrolled in the Dutch DREAM registry. An incomplete longitudinal anchored design was used where patients completed all 121 items of the item bank over the course of three waves of data collection. Item responses were fit to a generalized partial credit model adapted for longitudinal data and the item parameters were examined for differential item functioning (DIF) across country, age, and sex. In total, 690 patients participated in the study at time point 1 (T2, N = 489; T3, N = 311). The item bank could be successfully fitted to a generalized partial credit model, with the number of misfitting items falling within acceptable limits. Seven items demonstrated DIF for sex, while 5 items showed DIF for age in the Dutch RA sample. Twenty-five (20%) items were flagged for cross-cultural DIF compared to the US general population. However, the impact of observed DIF on total physical function estimates was negligible. The results of this study showed that the PROMIS PF item bank adequately fit a unidimensional IRT model which provides support for applications that require invariant estimates of physical function, such as computer adaptive testing and targeted short forms. More studies are needed to further investigate the cross-cultural applicability of the US-based PROMIS calibration and standardized metric.
    PLoS ONE 03/2014; 9(3):e92367. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0092367 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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