p16INK4A sensitizes human leukemia cells to FAS- and glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis via induction of BBC3/Puma and repression of MCL1 and BCL2.
ABSTRACT Loss of CDKN2A/p16(INK4A) in hematopoietic stem cells is associated with enhanced self-renewal capacity and might facilitate progression of damaged stem cells into pre-cancerous cells that give rise to leukemia. This is also reflected by the frequent loss of the INK4A locus in acute lymphoblastic T-cell leukemia. T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells designed to conditionally express p16(INK4A) arrest in the G(0)/G(1) phase of the cell cycle and show increased sensitivity to glucocorticoid- and tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily 6-induced apoptosis. To investigate the underlying molecular mechanism for increased death sensitivity, we interfered with specific steps of apoptosis signaling by expression of anti-apoptotic proteins. We found that alterations in cell death susceptibility resulted from changes in the composition of pro- and anti-apoptotic BCL2 proteins, i.e. repression of MCL1, BCL2, and PMAIP1/Noxa and the induction of pro-apoptotic BBC3/Puma. Interference with Puma induction by short hairpin RNA technology or retroviral expression of MCL1 or BCL2 significantly reduced both glucocorticoid- and FAS-induced cell death in p16(INK4A)-reconstituted leukemia cells. These results suggest that Puma, in concert with MCL1 and BCL2 repression, critically mediates p16(INK4A)-induced death sensitization and that in human T-cell leukemia the deletion of p16(INK4A) confers apoptosis resistance by shifting the balance of pro- and anti-apoptotic BCL2 proteins toward apoptosis protection.
SourceAvailable from: Maximilian Seiter[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Defects in the regulation of apoptosis are one main cause of cancer development and may result from overexpression of anti-apoptotic proteins such as the X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP). XIAP is frequently overexpressed in human leukemia and prostate and breast tumors. Inhibition of apoptosis by XIAP is mainly coordinated through direct binding to the initiator caspase-9 via its baculovirus-IAP-repeat-3 (BIR3) domain. XIAP inhibits caspases directly making it to an attractive target for anti-cancer therapy. In the search for novel, non-peptidic XIAP inhibitors in this study we focused on the chemical constituents of sāng bái pí (mulberry root bark). Most promising candidates of this plant were tested biochemically in vitro by a fluorescence polarization (FP) assay and in vivo via protein fragment complementation analysis (PCA). We identified the Diels Alder adduct Sanggenon G (SG1) as a novel, small-molecular weight inhibitor of XIAP. As shown by FP and PCA analyses, SG1 binds specifically to the BIR3 domain of XIAP with a binding affinity of 34.26 μM. Treatment of the transgenic leukemia cell line Molt3/XIAP with SG1 enhances caspase-8, -3 and -9 cleavage, displaces caspase-9 from XIAP as determined by immunoprecipitation experiments and sensitizes these cells to etoposide-induced apoptosis. SG1 not only sensitizes the XIAP-overexpressing leukemia cell line Molt3/XIAP to etoposide treatment but also different neuroblastoma cell lines endogenously expressing high XIAP levels. Taken together, Sanggenon G (SG1) is a novel, natural, non-peptidic, small-molecular inhibitor of XIAP that can serve as a starting point to develop a new class of improved XIAP inhibitors.01/2014; 4. DOI:10.1016/j.fob.2014.07.001
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Glucocorticoids (GCs) selectively trigger cell death in the multiple myeloma cell line MM1S which express NR3C1/Glucocorticoid Receptor (GR) protein, but fail to kill MM1R cells which lack GR protein. Given recent demonstrations of altered microRNA profiles in a diverse range of haematological malignancies and drug resistance, we characterized GC inducible mRNA and microRNA transcription profiles in GC sensitive MM1S as compared to GC resistant MM1R cells. Transcriptome analysis revealed that GCs regulate expression of multiple genes involved in cell cycle control, cell organization, cell death and immunological disease in MM1S cells, which remain unaffected in MM1R cells. With respect to microRNAs, mir-150-5p was identified as the most time persistent GC regulated microRNA, out of 5 QPCR validated microRNAs (mir-26b, mir-125a-5p, mir-146-5p, mir-150-5p, and mir-184), which are GC inducible in MM1S but not in MM1R cells. Functional studies further revealed that ectopic transfection of a synthetic mir-150-5p mimics GR dependent gene expression changes involved in cell death and cell proliferation pathways. Remarkably, despite the gene expression changes observed, overexpression of mir-150-5p in absence of GCs did not trigger significant cytotoxicity in MM1S or MM1R cells. This suggests the requirement of additional steps in GC induced cell death, which can not be mimicked by mir-150-5p overexpression alone. Interestingly, a combination of mir-150-5p transfection with low doses GC in MM1S cells was found to sensitize therapy response, whereas opposite effects could be observed with a mir-150-5p specific antagomir. Although mir-150-5p overexpression did not substantially change GR expression levels, it was found that mir-150-5p evokes GR specific effects through indirect mRNA regulation of GR interacting transcription factors and hormone receptors, GR chaperones, as well as various effectors of unfolded protein stress and chemokine signalling. Altogether GC-inducible mir-150-5p adds another level of regulation to GC specific therapeutic responses in multiple myeloma.PLoS ONE 12/2014; 9(12):e113842. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0113842 · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Ion channels are essential for the regulation of neuronal functions. The significance of plasma membrane, mitochondrial, endoplasmic reticulum and lysosomal ion channels in the regulation of Ca(2+) is well established. In contrast, surprisingly little is known about the function of ion channels on the nuclear envelope (NE). Here we demonstrate the presence of functional large-conductance, calcium-activated potassium channels (BK channels) on the NE of rodent hippocampal neurons. Functionally, blockade of nuclear BK channels (nBK channels) induces NE-derived Ca(2+) release, nucleoplasmic Ca(2+) elevation and cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB)-dependent transcription. More importantly, blockade of nBK channels regulates nuclear Ca(2+)-sensitive gene expression and promotes dendritic arborization in a nuclear Ca(2+)-dependent manner. These results suggest that the nBK channel functions as a molecular link between neuronal activity and nuclear Ca(2+) to convey signals from synapse to nucleus and is a new modulator, operating at the NE, of synaptic activity-dependent neuronal functions.Nature Neuroscience 06/2014; DOI:10.1038/nn.3744 · 14.98 Impact Factor