Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2) polymorphisms are independent risk factors for Crohn's disease and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). In Crohn's disease, the proinflammatory state resulting from NOD2 mutations have been associated with a loss of antibacterial function of enterocytes such as paneth cells. NOD2 has not been studied in experimental allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (allo-BMT). Using chimeric recipients with NOD2(-/-) hematopoietic cells, we demonstrate that NOD2 deficiency in host hematopoietic cells exacerbates GVHD. We found that proliferation and activation of donor T cells was enhanced in NOD-deficient allo-BMT recipients, suggesting that NOD2 plays a role in the regulation of host antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Next, we used bone marrow chimeras in an experimental colitis model and observed again that NOD2 deficiency in the hematopoietic cells results in increased intestinal inflammation. We conclude that NOD2 regulates the development of GVHD through its inhibitory effect on host APC function.
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"Reduced NOD2 activity was found to be associated with impaired epithelial barrier function and aggravated intestinal inflammation (41). Similarly, following allo-HSCT, NOD2-deficient mice showed signs of exacerbated GVHD (42). Another study with bone marrow chimeric mice that lacked NOD2 activity only in hematopoietic cells showed that NOD2 negatively regulates the development of GVHD through its inhibitory effect on host APCs. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is the only treatment with curative potential for certain aggressive hematopoietic malignancies. Its success is limited by acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), a life-threatening complication that occurs when allo-reactive donor T cells attack recipient organs. There is growing evidence that microbes and innate pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) such as toll-like receptors (TLR) and nod-like receptors (NLR) are critically involved in the pathogenesis of acute GVHD. Currently, a widely accepted model postulates that intensive chemotherapy and/or total-body irradiation during pre-transplant conditioning results in tissue damage and a loss of epithelial barrier function. Subsequent translocation of bacterial components as well as release of endogenous danger molecules stimulate PRRs of host antigen-presenting cells to trigger the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (cytokine storm) that modulate T cell allo-reactivity against host tissues, but eventually also the beneficial graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect. Given the limitations of existing immunosuppressive therapies, a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms that govern GVHD versus GVL is urgently needed. This may ultimately allow to design modulators, which protect from GvHD but preserve donor T-cell attack on hematologic malignancies. Here, we will briefly summarize current knowledge about the role of innate immunity in the pathogenesis of GVHD and GVL following allo-HSCT.
Frontiers in Immunology 07/2014; 5:337. DOI:10.3389/fimmu.2014.00337
"The ability of recipient cells, specifically dendritic cells, to initiate GvHD effects has been reported . Additionally, recently published data has demonstrated the importance of recipient NOD2 genotype in murine models of GvHD . Here, murine recipients of bone marrow and/or T cells from either wild-type (WT) or NOD2 knock-out mice showed no significant differences in the ability of the repopulating cells to proliferate, to be activated, or on their expression of gut-homing molecules. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a valuable tool in the treatment of many haematological disorders. Advances in understanding HLA matching have improved prognoses. However, many recipients of well-matched HSCT develop posttransplant complications, and survival is far from absolute. The pursuit of novel genetic factors that may impact on HSCT outcome has resulted in the publication of many articles on a multitude of genes. Three NOD2 polymorphisms, identified as disease-associated variants in Crohn's disease, have recently been suggested as important candidate gene markers in the outcome of HSCT. It was originally postulated that as the clinical manifestation of inflammatory responses characteristic of several post-transplant complications was of notable similarity to those seen in Crohn's disease, it was possible that they shared a common cause. Since the publication of this first paper, numerous studies have attempted to replicate the results in different transplant settings. The data has varied considerably between studies, and as yet no consensus on the impact of NOD2 SNPs on HSCT outcome has been achieved. Here, we will review the existing literature, summarise current theories as to why the data differs, and suggest possible mechanisms by which the SNPs affect HSCT outcome.
"The group of G. Nuñez reported an intrinsic role for NOD2 in murine CD4 T cells, showing in vitro and in vivo a defect in activated NOD2−/− CD4 T cell proliferation and secretion of IL-2 and IFN-γ in comparison to WT CD4 T cells . However, two independent laboratories did not reproduce these results –. Finally, two recent reports showed that direct stimulation with the NOD2 ligand MDP protects human FOXP3+ T cells from death receptor Fas-mediated apoptosis  and increases IFN-γ secretion by TCR-activated γδ T cell . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pattern recognition receptors (PRR), like Toll-like receptors (TLR) and NOD-like receptors (NLR), are involved in the detection of microbial infections and tissue damage by cells of the innate immune system. Recently, we and others have demonstrated that TLR2 can additionally function as a costimulatory receptor on CD8 T cells. Here, we establish that the intracytosolic receptor NOD1 is expressed and functional in CD8 T cells. We show that C12-iEDAP, a synthetic ligand for NOD1, has a direct impact on both murine and human CD8 T cells, increasing proliferation and effector functions of cells activated via their T cell receptor (TCR). This effect is dependent on the adaptor molecule RIP2 and is associated with an increased activation of the NF-κB, JNK and p38 signaling pathways. Furthermore, we demonstrate that NOD1 stimulation can cooperate with TLR2 engagement on CD8 T cells to enhance TCR-mediated activation. Altogether our results indicate that NOD1 might function as an alternative costimulatory receptor in CD8 T cells. Our study provides new insights into the function of NLR in T cells and extends to NOD1 the recent concept that PRR stimulation can directly control T cell functions.
PLoS ONE 07/2012; 7(7):e42170. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0042170 · 3.23 Impact Factor