Evaluation of calcium excretion in Brazilian infantile and young population environmentally exposed to lead.
ABSTRACT Lead exposure is an important issue in the research of several toxic effects resulting from the biochemical interaction between this metal and the organism. Calcium is a fundamental mineral for the maintenance of the organism homeostasis where there is interaction between lead and calcium in metabolic pathways. Environmental lead exposure by verifying the usefulness and applicability of urinary calcium/creatinine ratio (UCa/Cr) in this context was evaluated. This was an extensive socio-demographic study of the nutritional profile, lead exposure biomarkers in blood and the urine and UCa/Cr ratio. The children studied were from a low socio-economic group characterized by unsatisfactory nutritional diet. Lead environmental exposure was shown by biomarkers, with UCa/Cr ratio having positive and significant correlations with both lead and delta-aminolevulinic acid in urine (ALA-U), without colinearity diagnosis. There was a strong association between calcium excretion and lead exposure as a result of linear regression construction models. In children, lead increases calcium excretion which is an additional risk to infantile health. Urinary calcium/creatinine ratio may be a useful tool in the biological monitoring of lead exposure and health promotion programs.
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ABSTRACT: Arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury present potential health risks to children who are exposed through inhalation or ingestion. Emerging Market countries experience rapid industrial development that may coincide with the increased release of these metals into the environment. A literature review was conducted for English language articles from the 21st century on pediatric exposures to arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury in the International Monetary Fund's (IMF) top 10 Emerging Market countries: Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Poland, Russia, South Korea, Taiwan, and Turkey. Seventy-six peer-reviewed, published studies on pediatric exposure to metals met the inclusion criteria. The reported concentrations of metals in blood and urine from these studies were generally higher than US reference values, and many studies identified adverse health effects associated with metals exposure. Evidence of exposure to metals in the pediatric population of these Emerging Market countries demonstrates a need for interventions to reduce exposure and efforts to establish country-specific reference values through surveillance or biomonitoring. The findings from review of these 10 countries also suggest the need for country-specific public health policies and clinician education in Emerging Markets.International Journal of Pediatrics 01/2013; 2013:872596.