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Bed Bug (Heteroptera: Cimicidae) Attraction to Pitfall Traps Baited With Carbon Dioxide, Heat, and Chemical Lure

Department of Entomology, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA.
Journal of Economic Entomology (Impact Factor: 1.61). 08/2009; 102(4):1580-5. DOI: 10.1603/029.102.0423
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Carbon dioxide (CO2), heat, and chemical lure (1-octen-3-ol and L-lactic acid) were tested as attractants for bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L. (Heteroptera: Cimicidae), by using pitfall traps. Both CO2 and heat were attractive to bed bugs. CO2 was significantly more attractive to bed bugs than heat. Traps baited with chemical lure attracted more bed bugs but at a statistically nonsignificant level. In small arena studies (56 by 44 cm), pitfall traps baited with CO2 or heat trapped 79.8 +/- 6.7 and 51.6 +/- 0.9% (mean +/- SEM) of the bed bugs after 6 h, respectively. Traps baited with CO2 + heat, CO, + chemical lure, or CO2 + heat + chemical lure captured > or = 86.7% of the bed bugs after 6 h, indicating baited pitfall traps were highly effective in attracting and capturing bed bugs from a short distance. In 3.1- by 1.8-m environmental chambers, a pitfall trap baited with CO, + heat + chemical lure trapped 57.3 +/- 6.4% of the bed bugs overnight. The pitfall trap was further tested in four bed bug-infested apartments to determine its efficacy in detecting light bed bug infestations. Visual inspections found an average of 12.0 +/- 5.4 bed bugs per apartment. The bed bugs that were found by visual inspections were hand-removed during inspections. A pitfall trap baited with CO2 and chemical lure was subsequently placed in each apartment with an average of 15.0 +/- 6.4 bed bugs collected per trap by the next morning. We conclude that baited pitfall traps are potentially effective tools for evaluating bed bug control programs and detecting early bed bug infestations.

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    • "Because females took a disproportionately larger bloodmeal than males, the added weight from a larger bloodmeal was likely the cause of the reduced female climbing ability. All of the recent commercially available bed bug pitfall traps and traps used in research experiments have been made of plastic (Wang et al. 2009b, Anderson et al. 2009, Singh et al. 2013) whereas historically glass was a preferred surface for traps. Glass was observed to be superior to plastic in preventing the escape of epigaeic beetles from pitfall traps (Luff 1975) and catching more stored product beetles (Obeng-Ofori 1993). "
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    ABSTRACT: Little is known about what factors influence the climbing ability of bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), in relation to the various surfaces they encounter. We examined how sex, time since last fed, and what surfaces the bed bugs were in contact with affected their climbing performance. The effects of sex and time since fed were tested by counting the number of bed bugs able to climb a 45° slope. The pulling force was recorded using an analytical balance technique that captured the sequential vertical pulling force output of bed bugs attached to various surfaces. Recently fed female bed bugs were found to have the most difficulty in climbing smooth surfaces in comparison with males. This difference can be explained by the larger weight gained from bloodmeals by female bed bugs. A variety of vertical pulling forces were observed on surfaces ranging from sandpaper to talc powder-covered glass. For surfaces not treated with talc powder, bed bugs generated the least amount of vertical pulling force from synthetically created 0.6-µm plastron surfaces. This vast range in the ability of bed bugs to grip onto various surfaces may have implications on limiting bed bugs dispersal and hitchhiking behaviors.
    Journal of Medical Entomology 05/2015; 52(3):289-295. DOI:10.1093/jme/tjv012 · 1.82 Impact Factor
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    • "These experimental set-ups are valuable tools for identifying basic behavioural elements, although a low spatiotemporal scale may make field application of the results more difficult. Larger-scale arena trials, which more closely mimic a natural indoor bed bug pest situation, provide information about the attraction potential of CO 2 and chemical lures (Anderson et al., 2009; Wang et al., 2009, 2013; Singh et al., 2012, 2013). "
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    ABSTRACT: A large-arena bioassay is used to examine sex differences in spatiotemporal patterns of bed bug Cimex lectularius L. behavioural responses to either a human host or CO2 gas. After release in the centre of the arena, 90% of newly-fed bed bugs move to hiding places in the corners within 24 h. They require 3 days to settle down completely in the arena, with generally low activity levels and the absence of responses to human stimuli for 5 days. After 8–9 days, persistent responses can be recorded. Sex differences are observed, in which females are more active during establishment, respond faster after feeding, expose themselves more than males during the daytime, and respond more strongly to the host signal. The number of bed bugs that rest in harbourages is found to vary significantly according to light setting and sex. Both sexes stay inside harbourages more in daylight compared with night, and males hide more than females during the daytime but not during the night. The spatial distribution of the bed bugs is also found to change with the presence of CO2, and peak aggregation around the odour source is observed after 24 min. Both male and female bed bugs move from hiding places or the border of the arena toward the centre where CO2 is released. Peak responses are always highest during the night. Bed bug behaviour and behaviour-regulating features are discussed in the context of control methods.
    Physiological Entomology 05/2014; 39(3). DOI:10.1111/phen.12062 · 1.43 Impact Factor
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    • "Effective means of monitoring and controlling bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), have eluded researchers and pest management professionals (but see Anderson et al. 2009; Wang et al. 2009, 2011; Weeks et al. 2011). Many of the current approaches for bed bug control rely on chemical means, primarily pyrethroids (Doggett and Russell 2008), that act as neurotoxicants (Costa et al. 2008). "
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