Article

Classification of body fatness by body mass index-for-age categories among children.

Division of Nutrition and Physical Activity, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4770 Buford Highway, Atlanta, GA 30341-3717, USA.
JAMA Pediatrics (Impact Factor: 4.25). 09/2009; 163(9):805-11. DOI: 10.1001/archpediatrics.2009.104
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To examine the ability of various body mass index (BMI)-for-age categories, including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's 85th to 94th percentiles, to correctly classify the body fatness of children and adolescents.
Cross-sectional.
The New York Obesity Research Center at St Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital from 1995 to 2000.
Healthy 5- to 18-year-old children and adolescents (N = 1196) were recruited in the New York City area through newspaper notices, announcements at schools and activity centers, and word of mouth.
Percent body fat as determined by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Body fatness cutoffs were chosen so that the number of children in each category (normal, moderate, and elevated fatness) would equal the number of children in the corresponding BMI-for-age category (<85th percentile, 85th-94th percentile, and > or =95th percentile, respectively).
About 77% of the children who had a BMI for age at or above the 95th percentile had an elevated body fatness, but levels of body fatness among children who had a BMI for age between the 85th and 94th percentiles (n = 200) were more variable; about one-half of these children had a moderate level of body fatness, but 30% had a normal body fatness and 20% had an elevated body fatness. The prevalence of normal levels of body fatness among these 200 children was highest among black children (50%) and among those within the 85th to 89th percentiles of BMI for age (40%).
Body mass index is an appropriate screening test to identify children who should have further evaluation and follow-up, but it is not diagnostic of level of adiposity.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Aviva Sopher, Jan 08, 2015
2 Followers
 · 
399 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A five-beam pulse-to-pulse coherent Doppler sonar capable of high space-velocity resolution measurements of water current mean velocity and turbulence has been developed and used extensively to monitor the characteristics of water flow. One beam is vertical thus providing direct measurements of the vertical component, w, of water velocity and turbulence. Horizontal velocity and turbulence measurements are made using two tilted beams contained in a vertical plane parallel to the longitudinal flow, and two other beams also tilted but contained in a plane perpendicular to that longitudinal flow. The paper presents the system and its performance including techniques to extend the maximum unambiguous range-velocity limits by use of dual-or tri-interleaved pulse repetition periods assisted by signal processing methods. Fast switching of the five beams, together with high elevation angle of the tilted beams (five degrees from vertical), reducing the horizontal separation distance between the five beams, allows individual estimates of the variance and covariance-Reynolds stress terms which both contribute to the measured Doppler spectrum variance.
    OCEANS '85 - Ocean Engineering and the Environment; 12/1985
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Recently, two single nucleotide polymorphisms at position 45 and 276 on the adiponectin gene (ADIPOQ) have been recognized as determinants of total adiponectin levels, insulin resistance, and risk for diabetes in various obese populations. The aim of this study was to determine whether these two polymorphisms are indeed determinants in the development of metabolic disorders or whether they are secondary to other confounding factors. To do so, we have selected 170 physically active adolescent girls (mean age, 14.03 ± 1.5 years and mean body mass index, 19.98 ± 2.5 kg/m²) devoid of any metabolic diseases or confounding factors, to better attribute any findings to genotype effects. Concentration of adiponectin, insulin, and glucose were determined from blood samples with appropriate kits. Body fat parameters were evaluated with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and genotype was analyzed with DNA extracted from whole blood samples followed by polymerase chain reaction and electrophoresis to separate alleles. Neither single nucleotide polymorphism +45T/G nor +276G/T was related to homeostasis model assessment index or adiponectin levels; however, the presence of the G allele on site 45 favored a significant decrease in lean body mass compared with those who were T homozygous (TG:36.90/TT:41.07 kg, P < 0.05). Results suggest that the reported increase in the risk of diabetes in subjects that were G allele carriers at site 45 in obese populations compared with normal-weight populations can be linked instead to a change in muscle mass or the muscle itself present in this genotype group.
    American Journal of Human Biology 01/2010; 22(6):813-8. DOI:10.1002/ajhb.21087 · 1.93 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Complications of overweight amplify with age, and irreversible damage already exists in young persons. Identifying the most sensitive age interval(s) for adult overweight is relevant for primary prevention. The aim of the study was to assess the relative contribution of body mass index (BMI) changes between 0 and 18 years to adult overweight, and to identify the earliest critical growth period. Methods and Findings: Data from 762 subjects in the Terneuzen Birth Cohort with an average of 21 growth measurements per subject from birth until 18 years were used. The main outcome measure was the BMI standard deviation score (SDS) at young adulthood. For each subject BMI SDS was fitted by a piecewise linear model at eight different ages and correlated to adult BMI SDS. The age intervals in between are considered critical according to three criteria, tested by respectively Students’ t-tests, multiple linear regression analyses and Pearson’s correlation tests. In the age intervals 4 months(m) -1 year(y), 2–6 y, 6–10 y and 10–18 y the BMI SDS change differs between adults with and without overweight (P#0.001). The age intervals 2–6 y and 10–18 y also meet the second criterion, implying that the BMI change during this period has a predictive value for adult BMI SDS in addition to BMI SDS at the end of the period. The largest rise in correlation between estimated BMI SDS and measured adult BMI SDS occurs during the period 2–6 y (from 0.36 to 0.63), which results in a high sensitivity (0.6) and specificity (0.8) by the age of 6 y. Conclusions/Significance: The age interval from 2 y to 6 y is the earliest and most critical growth period for adult overweight. Therefore, primary prevention of adult overweight seems most likely to be successful if targeted at this specific age interval. By identifying those with an upwards centile crossing between 2 and 6 years, the development towards adult overweight might be reversed.
    PLoS ONE 02/2010; DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0009155 · 3.53 Impact Factor