Beyond feasibility: a comparison of newborns undergoing thoracoscopic and open repair of congenital diaphragmatic hernias

Department of Pediatric Surgery, Children's Hospital of Wisconsin, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA.
Journal of Pediatric Surgery (Impact Factor: 1.31). 10/2009; 44(9):1702-7. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2008.11.030
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Although both laparoscopic and thoracoscopic repair of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) have been described in the literature, neither appropriate selection criteria nor improved outcomes for minimally invasive repair over open repair have been clearly delineated.
We reviewed our experience with neonatal CDH repair between 2004 and 2007 to determine clinical parameters that are associated with successful thoracoscopic CDH repair. We compared these patients to a similarly matched cohort of patients who had undergone an open neonatal CDH repair between 1999 and 2003.
From 2004 to 2007, 20 (61%) of 33 patients underwent successful neonatal thoracoscopic CDH repair. Characteristics common to all patients who underwent successful thoracoscopic repair included absence of congenital heart defects, no need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, ventilatory peak inspiratory pressure of less than 26 cmH(2)O, and oxygenation index less than 5 on the day of planned surgery. From 1999 to 2003, 40 patients underwent an open neonatal CDH repair, of which 18 (45%) patients would have matched our selection criteria for thoracoscopic repair. These 2 cohorts were similar in age, estimated gestational age, weight, APGAR scores, and oxygenation index at the time of surgery. The thoracoscopic cohort had statistically and clinically significant quicker return to full enteral feeds, had shorter duration on the ventilator postoperatively, and required less narcotic/sedation postoperatively. Less severe complications occurred in the thoracoscopic cohort. Adjusted total hospital charges were less for the thoracoscopic repair.
Successful thoracoscopic CDH repair can be expected in newborns, which has limited respiratory compromise. Thoracoscopic CDH repair is associated with lower morbidity and quicker recovery than traditional open repair and without increased risk of recurrence or complications.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Congenital diaphragmatic hernia is a birth defect that affects about one in 2500 live births. Although the overall survival has improved over the last several decades thanks to advancements in postnatal resuscitation and intensive care treatment, morbidity and mortality remain high. The surgical management of these infants is far from being standardized, and many aspects are still disputed among experts. The timing of surgical repair remains controversial and the indications for the ideal time for surgery have not been validated. The main novelty in the surgical treatment is related to the use of minimally invasive techniques, although these have been associated with intraoperative blood gas disturbances and higher recurrence rates. Herein, we report and comment on the main controversies of postnatal CDH repair in this rapidly evolving field. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine 11/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.siny.2014.09.002 · 3.13 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Diaphragmatic hernia can be repaired by open or minimally invasive surgery (MIS), although it is unclear which technique has better outcomes. Our objective was to compare the outcomes of these procedures in a systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods We sought all publications describing both techniques through MEDLINE, Embase, and CENTRAL. Our primary outcome of interest was recurrence. We conducted statistical analyses using Review Manager 5.2. Results We did not identify any randomized controlled trials. Our pooled estimate of results from 10 studies showed that total recurrence was higher after MIS (OR: 2.81[1.73, 4.56], p < 0.001). Subgroup analyses indicated higher recurrence after MIS for patch repairs (OR: 4.29[2.13, 8.67], p < 0.001), but not for primary repairs. Operative time was longer for MIS (MD: 55.25[40.21, 70.28], p < 0.001), while postoperative ventilator time and postoperative mortality were higher after open surgery (MD: 1.33[0.05, 2.62], p = 0.04; OR: 7.54[3.36, 16.90], p < 0.001, respectively). Conclusions Recurrence rate is higher after MIS than open repair when a patch is used. Operative time is also longer with MIS. Poorer outcomes after open surgery may be a result of selection bias rather than surgical technique. Surgeons should carefully consider the potential morbidity associated with MIS when deciding on a repair method.
    Journal of Pediatric Surgery 05/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2014.02.049 · 1.31 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effect of CO2-insufflation with 5 and 10 mmHg on cerebral oxygenation and hemodynamics in neonates. An increasing percentage of surgical interventions in neonates are performed by minimal invasive techniques. Recently, concerns have been raised regarding a decrease of cerebral oxygenation in neonates during thoracoscopy as a result of CO2-insufflation. This was an animal experimental study. Piglets were anesthetized, intubated, ventilated, and surgically prepared for CO2-insufflation. Insufflation was done with 5 or 10 mmHg CO2 during 1 h. Arterial saturation (SaO2), heart rate (HR), mean arterial blood pressure (MABP), and cerebral oxygenation (rScO2) were monitored. CFTOE, an estimator of cerebral oxygen extraction ((SaO2 - rScO2)/SaO2)), was calculated. Arterial blood gases were drawn every 15': pre (T0), during (T1-T4) and after CO2-insufflation (T5). Ten piglets (4 kg) were randomized for 5 (P5) and 10 (P10) mmHg CO2-insufflation. Two P10 piglets needed resuscitation after insufflation, none P5. Linear mixed-effect modeling of paCO2, pH, and SaO2 showed that values were dependent on time and time squared (p < 0.001) but were not different between the 5 and 10 mmHg groups. Analysis demonstrated significant changes over time in heart rate and MABP between the 5 and 10 mmHg groups, with a significant higher heart rate and lower blood pressure in the 10 mmHg group (p < 0.001). For rScO2 and cFTOE, no group differences could be demonstrated, but a significant effect of time was found: rScO2 increased and cFTOE decreased (p < 0.001). Insufflation of CO2 during thoracoscopy with 10 mmHg caused more severe hemodynamic instability and seems to be related with a decrease of cerebral perfusion as represented by a higher oxygen extraction. CO2-insufflation of 5 mmHg for thoracoscopy seems to have no adverse effects on cerebral oxygenation.
    Surgical Endoscopy 12/2014; DOI:10.1007/s00464-014-4009-5 · 3.31 Impact Factor