Reexamination of ultra-thin nipple shield use, infant growth and maternal satisfaction

West Virginia University, School of Nursing, Morgantown, WV 26505, USA.
Journal of Clinical Nursing (Impact Factor: 1.23). 10/2009; 18(21):2949-55. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2702.2009.02912.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The primary objective of the multi-site, international study was to examine trends in weight gain for term infants breastfed with and without ultra-thin silicone nipple shields to determine the effect of nipple shield use on infant weight gain over two months. Additionally, the study examined maternal satisfaction with nipple shield use using a structured survey.
The nipple shield may facilitate successful breastfeeding outcomes when indicated. There has been question regarding infant weight gain with nipple shield use. A published pilot study using within-subject design indicated no significant difference in infant test weights and maternal prolactin levels when breastfeeding with and without nipple shields. The current study builds and expands upon the pilot study.
Prospective, multi-site, non-randomised, between-subject study.
Maternal-infant dyads (n = 54) who used a nipple shield for breastfeeding were studied.
Results demonstrate no statistically significant difference in infant weight gain at two weeks, one month and two months between infants who breastfed with and infants who breastfed without a nipple shield. A majority (89.8%) of the women reported a positive experience with nipple shield use and 67.3% of the women reported that the nipple shield helped prevent breastfeeding termination.
Infant weight gain was similar in maternal-infant dyads using nipple shields for two months compared to those not using the shields. Maternal positive report of nipple shield use lends to the clinical importance of nipple shield use when appropriately indicated.
Nipple shield use may facilitate breastfeeding when clinically indicated in maternal-infant dyads without risk of decreased infant weight gain.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The purpose of the study was to measure the attitudes of antenatal midwives and postnatal nurses to breastfeeding before and after common, process-oriented breastfeeding training. Antenatal centres and child-health centres in 10 municipalities were randomized to either an intervention or a control group. The antenatal midwives and postnatal nurses in the intervention group were together given process-oriented breastfeeding training and were, in addition, asked to develop a common breastfeeding policy. A previously developed instrument was used to measure the effects of a training programme on breastfeeding attitudes among midwives and postnatal nurses. It consisted of four scales measuring a person's attitudes toward breastfeeding in four dimensions: regulating, facilitating, disempowering, and breastfeeding-antipathy attitudes. A mean score was calculated for each individual on these four dimensional scales. The higher the score, the stronger the attitude. After one year, the intervention group reduced their scores on the regulating scale when compared with the control group (p<0.001). The intervention group decreased their scores on the regulating scale and increased their scores on the facilitating scale over the first year after training. The control group also significantly increased their scores on the facilitating scale. When the results were analysed profession-wise, the postnatal nurses in the intervention group decreased their scores on the regulating and disempowering scales and increased their scores on the facilitating scale. In contrast, the midwives in the intervention group decreased their scores only on the breastfeeding antipathy scale. The control group midwives decreased their scores on the disempowering scale. No differences were found among the postnatal nurses in the control group. Process-oriented breastfeeding training made both antenatal midwives and postnatal nurses better disposed to breastfeeding; postnatal nurses in particular improved their attitudes. Attitudes to breastfeeding tended to be stable over time, but process-oriented training lowered the scores a little on the regulating scale, suggesting that after this kind of training counsellors would find it less necessary to schedule and control the mothers' breastfeeding behaviour.
    Scandinavian Journal of Public Health 12/2005; 33(6):424-31. DOI:10.1080/14034940510005923 · 3.13 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Nipple shields have become commonplace in the United States for a wide range of breastfeeding problems. This article is a summary of the current literature describing the evidence for nipple shield use. The authors reviewed all available articles on nipple shields and selected 13 studies for inclusion. The studies were organized into three categories: physiologic responses, premature infants, and mothers' experiences. This review concludes that current published research does not provide evidence for safety or effectiveness of contemporary nipple shield use.
    Breastfeeding Medicine 12/2010; 5(6):309-14. DOI:10.1089/bfm.2010.0003 · 1.73 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Nipple pain and insufficient milk supply are major causes of early weaning. We have found that persistent nipple pain was associated with strong infant sucking vacuums during breastfeeding. Several studies indicate that nipple pain and abnormal infant sucking have the potential to reduce milk transfer. We aimed to determine whether women with persistent nipple pain had low milk supply. The 24-hour milk production and feeding characteristics of mothers with persistent nipple pain (n=21) were compared with those mothers without nipple pain (n=21). Milk productions were measured by test-weighing the infant before and after every feed from each breast over a 24-26-hour period. Comparisons were made using Student's t tests and linear mixed models as appropriate. Lower milk productions were associated with longer meal durations for mothers with pain. There were no significant differences in the average 24-hour milk production or any feeding characteristics between the groups. However, four women with persistent nipple pain had milk production levels below 500 mL/day. The majority of breastfeeding women experiencing persistent nipple pain were able to achieve normal milk production levels. Feeding duration and frequency were similar to those of women not experiencing pain. However, longer meal durations in the pain group were associated with lower levels of milk production. Further investigation is necessary to identify mothers most affected by maternal nipple pain.
    Breastfeeding Medicine 03/2012; 7(4):275-81. DOI:10.1089/bfm.2011.0117 · 1.73 Impact Factor
Show more