Similarity in genetic alterations between paired well-differentiated and dedifferentiated components of dedifferentiated liposarcoma
ABSTRACT Liposarcoma represents a unique model insofar as some well-differentiated liposarcomas progress to non-lipogenic, so-called 'dedifferentiated,' forms. The well-differentiated and dedifferentiated family of liposarcomas demonstrates amplification of the chromosome subregion 12q13-q15 with resultant amplification of the MDM2 and CDK4 genes. However, the specific genetic changes that distinguish between well-differentiated and dedifferentiated liposarcomas are less well understood. To study the genetic changes in dedifferentiated liposarcomas, paired well-differentiated and dedifferentiated components of 29 tumors were analyzed separately by array-based comparative genomic hybridization. A bacterial artificial chromosome array at approximately 1-Mb resolution was used. The genetic changes were compared with clinical presentation, grade of the dedifferentiated component and overexpression of MDM2 and CDK4. Most tumors (n=21, 72%) were retroperitoneal, with both components present at initial diagnosis (n=25, 86%). Eight tumors (28%) were classified as low-grade dedifferentiation. In four cases (14%), a well-differentiated liposarcoma preceded the presentation of the dedifferentiated tumor by 1-5 years. 12q13-q15 was amplified in all tumors. Using unsupervised hierarchical clustering of copy-number changes, all but two tumors showed close similarities between well-differentiated and dedifferentiated components, and segregated as pairs. Dedifferentiated components had more total amplifications (P=0.008) and a trend for gain at 19q13.2, but no genetic changes were significant in distinguishing between the two components. High-level amplifications of 1p21-32 (n=7, 24%), 1q21-23 (n=9, 31%), 6q23-24 (n=6, 21%) and 12q24 (n=3, 10%) were common, but none significantly correlated with differentiation. Presentation and grade correlated with the frequency of changes at a number of genetic loci (P<0.001), whereas CDK4 immunostaining showed negative correlation with 12q13.13 amplification. The genotypic similarity, at the limit of the array's resolution, between components implies that most genetic changes precede phenotypic 'progression,' early in tumorigenesis. The relationship between genetic changes and presentation or grade may reflect differences in factors that control genomic instability or the background genotype of the tumor.
SourceAvailable from: PubMed Central[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background. The assessment of MDM2 gene amplification by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has become a routine ancillary tool for diagnosing atypical lipomatous tumor (ALT)/well-differentiated liposarcoma and dedifferentiated liposarcoma (WDL/DDL) in specialist sarcoma units. We describe our experience of its utility at our tertiary institute. Methods. All routine histology samples in which MDM2 amplification was assessed with FISH over a 2-year period were included, and FISH results were correlated with clinical and histologic findings. Results. 365 samples from 347 patients had FISH for MDM2 gene amplification. 170 were positive (i.e., showed MDM2 gene amplification), 192 were negative, and 3 were technically unsatisfactory. There were 122 histologically benign cases showing a histology:FISH concordance rate of 92.6%, 142 WDL/DDL (concordance 96.5%), and 34 cases histologically equivocal for WDL (concordance 50%). Of 64 spindle cell/pleomorphic neoplasms (in which DDL was a differential diagnosis), 21.9% showed MDM2 amplification. Of the cases with discrepant histology and FISH, all but 3 had diagnoses amended following FISH results. For discrepancies of benign histology but positive FISH, lesions were on average larger, more frequently in "classical" (intra-abdominal or inguinal) sites for WDL/DDL and more frequently core biopsies. Discrepancies of malignant histology but negative FISH were smaller, less frequently in "classical" sites but again more frequently core biopsies. Conclusions. FISH has a high correlation rate with histology for cases with firm histologic diagnoses of lipoma or WDL/DDL. It is a useful ancillary diagnostic tool in histologically equivocal cases, particularly in WDL lacking significant histologic atypia or DDL without corresponding WDL component, especially in larger tumors, those from intra-abdominal or inguinal sites or core biopsies. There is a significant group of well-differentiated adipocytic neoplasms which are difficult to diagnose on morphology alone, in which FISH for MDM2 amplification is diagnostically contributory.Sarcoma 01/2015; 2015:812089. DOI:10.1155/2015/812089
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Genomic amplification of the c-Jun proto-oncogene has been identified in ~30% of dedifferentiated liposarcomas (DDLPS), but the functional contribution of c-Jun to the progression of DDLPS remains poorly understood. In previous work, we showed that knockdown of c-Jun by RNA interference impaired the in vitro proliferation and in vivo growth of a DDLPS cell line (LP6) with genomic amplification of the c-Jun locus. Here, we use gene expression analysis and functional studies in a broad panel of cell lines to further define the role of c-Jun in DDLPS and other soft tissue sarcomas. We show that c-Jun knockdown impairs transition through the G1 phase of the cell cycle in multiple DDLPS cell lines. We also find that high levels of c-Jun expression are both necessary and sufficient to promote DDLPS cell migration and invasion in vitro. Our data suggest that high levels of c-Jun enhance motility in part by driving the expression of ENPP2/Autotaxin. c-Jun overexpression has minimal effects on in vitro proliferation, but substantially enhances the in vivo growth of weakly tumorigenic DDLPS cell lines. Finally, we provide evidence that c-Jun genomic amplification and overexpression may have similar functional consequences in other types of soft tissue sarcoma. Our data suggest a model in which relatively low levels of c-Jun are sufficient for in vitro proliferation, but high levels of c-Jun enhance invasiveness and capacity for in vivo tumor growth. These observations provide an explanation for the selective advantage provided by c-Jun genomic amplification in vivo and suggest that sarcomas with elevated c-Jun levels are likely to have a particularly high malignant potential.The Journal of Pathology 07/2014; DOI:10.1002/path.4379 · 7.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Liposarcoma is one of the most common histologic types of soft tissue sarcoma and is frequently an aggressive cancer with poor outcome. Hence, alternative approaches other than surgical excision are necessary to improve treatment of well-differentiated/dedifferentiated liposarcoma (WDLPS/DDLPS). For this reason, we performed a two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) analysis to identify new factors for WDLPS and DDLPS. Among the selected candidate proteins, gankyrin, known to be an oncoprotein, showed a significantly high level of expression pattern and inversely low expression of p53/p21 in WDLPS and DDLPS tissues, suggesting possible utility as a new predictive factor. Moreover, inhibition of gankyrin not only led to reduction of in vitro cell growth ability including cell proliferation, colony-formation, and migration, but also in vivo DDLPS cell tumorigenesis, perhaps via downregulation of the p53 tumor suppressor gene and its p21 target and also reduction of AKT/mTOR signal activation. This study identifies gankyrin, for the first time, as new potential predictive and oncogenic factor of WDLPS and DDLPS, suggesting the potential for service as a future LPS therapeutic approach.Oncotarget 08/2014; 5(19). · 6.63 Impact Factor