Anal sexually transmitted infections and risk of HIV infection in homosexual men.
ABSTRACT We examined a range of common bacterial and viral sexually transmitted infections as risk factors for HIV seroconversion in a community-based cohort of HIV-negative homosexual men in Sydney, Australia.
Detailed information about HIV risk behaviors was collected by interview twice yearly. Participants were tested annually for HIV, anal and urethral gonorrhea and chlamydia, herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, and syphilis. In addition, they reported annual diagnoses of these conditions and of genital and anal warts.
Among 1427 enrolled participants, 53 HIV seroconverters were identified, giving an incidence of 0.78 per 100 person-years. After controlling for number of episodes of insertive and receptive nonseroconcordant unprotected anal intercourse, there were independent associations with anal gonorrhea (adjusted hazard ratio = 7.12, 95% confidence interval: 2.05 to 24.79) and anal warts (hazard ratio = 3.63, 95% confidence interval: 1.62 to 8.14).
Anal gonorrhea and anal warts were independently associated with HIV acquisition. The added HIV prevention value of more frequent screening of the anus to allow early detection and treatment of anal sexually transmitted infections in homosexual men should be considered.
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ABSTRACT: Introduction: The HIV epidemic in Latin America is concentrated among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TGW) with transmission predominately occurring during unprotected anal intercourse. This mode of transmission is also responsible for other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as herpes simplex, chlamydia and gonorrhoea, human papillomavirus (HPV)/genital warts and syphilis. Studies assessing the prevalence of HIV and HPV among MSM have not addressed the role of genital warts and HPV-related diseases in the acquisition of HIV infection. Community-based testing programmes are a potentially important way to remove barriers including stigma for individuals to learn about their STI status. Methods and analysis: The prospective cohort study will recruit 600 MSM/TGW at a community centre in Lima, Peru, named Epicentro. Half of the participants will have a history of or have current anogenital warts (AGW), and the other half will have no history of AGW. We will measure the prevalence and acquisition of STIs including syphilis, HPV, chlamydia and gonorrhoea and the HIV-incidence in the two groups. To the best of our knowledge, it will be the first study that specifically examines the impact of genital warts on incident HIV infection. This study will help to understand the relationship between AGW and HIV infection among MSM/TGW in Peru. Furthermore, it may facilitate the development of preventive intervention strategies to reduce the prevalence of AGW and prevent incident HIV infection. HPV-related manifestations may be a good proxy for HIV risk.BMJ Open 09/2014; 2014(4):e005687. · 2.06 Impact Factor
- Sexual Health 04/2014; · 1.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To examine HIV prevalence, HIV testing behaviour, undiagnosed infection and risk factors for HIV positivity among a community sample of gay men in Scotland. Cross-sectional survey of gay and bisexual men attending commercial gay venues in Glasgow and Edinburgh, Scotland with voluntary anonymous HIV testing of oral fluid samples in 2011. A response rate of 65.2% was achieved (1515 participants). HIV prevalence (4.8%, 95% confidence interval, CI 3.8% to 6.2%) remained stable compared to previous survey years (2005 and 2008) and the proportion of undiagnosed infection among HIV-positive men (25.4%) remained similar to that recorded in 2008. Half of the participants who provided an oral fluid sample stated that they had had an HIV test in the previous 12 months; this proportion is significantly higher when compared to previous study years (50.7% versus 33.8% in 2005, p<0.001). Older age (>25 years) was associated with HIV positivity (1.8% in those <25 versus 6.4% in older ages group) as was a sexually transmitted infection (STI) diagnosis within the previous 12 months (adjusted odds ratio 2.13, 95% CI 1.09-4.14). There was no significant association between age and having an STI or age and any of the sexual behaviours recorded. HIV transmission continues to occur among gay and bisexual men in Scotland. Despite evidence of recent testing within the previous six months, suggesting a willingness to test, the current opt-out policy may have reached its limit with regards to maximising HIV test uptake. Novel strategies are required to improve regular testing opportunities and more frequent testing as there are implications for the use of other biomedical HIV interventions.PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(3):e90805. · 3.53 Impact Factor