Anal sexually transmitted infections and risk of HIV infection in homosexual men.
ABSTRACT We examined a range of common bacterial and viral sexually transmitted infections as risk factors for HIV seroconversion in a community-based cohort of HIV-negative homosexual men in Sydney, Australia.
Detailed information about HIV risk behaviors was collected by interview twice yearly. Participants were tested annually for HIV, anal and urethral gonorrhea and chlamydia, herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, and syphilis. In addition, they reported annual diagnoses of these conditions and of genital and anal warts.
Among 1427 enrolled participants, 53 HIV seroconverters were identified, giving an incidence of 0.78 per 100 person-years. After controlling for number of episodes of insertive and receptive nonseroconcordant unprotected anal intercourse, there were independent associations with anal gonorrhea (adjusted hazard ratio = 7.12, 95% confidence interval: 2.05 to 24.79) and anal warts (hazard ratio = 3.63, 95% confidence interval: 1.62 to 8.14).
Anal gonorrhea and anal warts were independently associated with HIV acquisition. The added HIV prevention value of more frequent screening of the anus to allow early detection and treatment of anal sexually transmitted infections in homosexual men should be considered.
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ABSTRACT: To analyse changes in testing for sexually transmissible infections (STI) among gay and bisexual men in Melbourne, Sydney and Queensland, Australia, particularly comprehensive STI testing (at least four tests from different anatomical sites in the previous year), and the characteristics of men who had such testing. Data were analysed from repeated, cross-sectional, community-based surveys conducted during 2003-2012. Trends in specific STI tests and comprehensive testing were assessed and the characteristics of participants who reported comprehensive STI testing were identified using multivariate logistic regression, stratified by HIV status. Among HIV-negative and unknown status men (n=51 009), comprehensive STI and HIV testing increased substantially from 13% in 2003 to 34% in 2012. During the same period, comprehensive STI testing (excluding HIV testing) increased from 24% to 57% among HIV-positive men (n=5532). In both HIV status groups, comprehensive testing was more commonly reported by men who had unprotected anal intercourse with casual partners, and men with higher numbers of partners. Among HIV-negative/unknown status participants, comprehensive STI and HIV testing was also associated with education level, regional location and finding partners online. Among HIV-positive men, comprehensive STI testing was also associated with free time spent with gay men and illicit drug use. Comprehensive testing was related to a high annual rate of diagnosis with STIs (20% of HIV-negative/unknown status men and 38% of HIV-positive men). There has been a substantial improvement in the proportion of gay and bisexual men in Melbourne, Sydney and Queensland who report comprehensive testing. Comprehensive testing is most likely among men whose practices put them at increased risk of infection, and is associated with a high rate of STI diagnosis. However, opportunities for comprehensive testing are still being missed, suggesting a need for its ongoing promotion.Sexually transmitted infections 11/2013; · 2.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To examine HIV prevalence, HIV testing behaviour, undiagnosed infection and risk factors for HIV positivity among a community sample of gay men in Scotland. Cross-sectional survey of gay and bisexual men attending commercial gay venues in Glasgow and Edinburgh, Scotland with voluntary anonymous HIV testing of oral fluid samples in 2011. A response rate of 65.2% was achieved (1515 participants). HIV prevalence (4.8%, 95% confidence interval, CI 3.8% to 6.2%) remained stable compared to previous survey years (2005 and 2008) and the proportion of undiagnosed infection among HIV-positive men (25.4%) remained similar to that recorded in 2008. Half of the participants who provided an oral fluid sample stated that they had had an HIV test in the previous 12 months; this proportion is significantly higher when compared to previous study years (50.7% versus 33.8% in 2005, p<0.001). Older age (>25 years) was associated with HIV positivity (1.8% in those <25 versus 6.4% in older ages group) as was a sexually transmitted infection (STI) diagnosis within the previous 12 months (adjusted odds ratio 2.13, 95% CI 1.09-4.14). There was no significant association between age and having an STI or age and any of the sexual behaviours recorded. HIV transmission continues to occur among gay and bisexual men in Scotland. Despite evidence of recent testing within the previous six months, suggesting a willingness to test, the current opt-out policy may have reached its limit with regards to maximising HIV test uptake. Novel strategies are required to improve regular testing opportunities and more frequent testing as there are implications for the use of other biomedical HIV interventions.PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(3):e90805. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To estimate the cost-effectiveness of anorectal chlamydia screening among men who have sex with men (MSM) in care at HIV treatment centers. Transmission model combined with economic analysis over a 20-year period. MSM in care at HIV treatment centers. Once-yearly or twice-yearly screening for anorectal chlamydia among MSM in care at HIV treatment centers. Averted HIV and chlamydia infections; discounted quality-adjusted life-years and costs; incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). Costs will be saved by routine chlamydia screening of MSM in care at HIV treatment centers if these patients seek little or no screening elsewhere. Nonroutine screening is considerably more expensive than routine screening offered within a scheduled visit. Adding once-yearly chlamydia screening for MSM in care at HIV treatment centers is cost saving when 30% or fewer of those men seek once-yearly screening elsewhere (&OV0556;1.5 to &OV0556;8.1 million saved). Twice-yearly routine screening at HIV treatment centers is cost-effective only when routine screening takes place without additional nonroutine screening (&OV0556;1.9 million saved). Adding annual chlamydia screening to the HIV consultation will be cost saving as long as only a limited proportion of men are nonroutinely screened. The ICER was most sensitive to the percentage of MSM that continue to be screened elsewhere.AIDS (London, England) 09/2013; 27(14):2281-2290. · 4.91 Impact Factor