Guanosine Prevents Thermal Hyperalgesia in a Rat Model of Peripheral Mononeuropathy
ABSTRACT It is well known that adenine-based purines exert multiple effects on pain transmission. Less attention has been given, however, to the antinociceptive effects of guanine-based purines. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of intraperitoneal administration of guanosine on a rat model of peripheral mononeuropathy. Additionally, investigation of the mechanism of action of guanosine, its general toxicity and measurements of central nervous system purine levels were performed. Rats received an intraperitoneal administration of vehicle (0.1 mM NaOH) or guanosine (up to 120 mg.kg(-1)) in an acute or chronic regimen. Guanosine significantly reduced thermal hyperalgesia on the ipsilateral side of the sciatic nerve ligation. Additionally, guanosine prevented locomotor deficits and body weight loss induced by the mononeuropathy. Acute systemic administration of guanosine caused an approximately 11-fold increase on central nervous system guanosine levels, but this effect was not observed after chronic treatment. Chronic guanosine administration prevented the increase on cortical glutamate uptake but not the decrease in spinal cord glutamate uptake induced by the mononeuropathy. No significant general toxicity was observed after chronic exposure to guanosine. This study provides new evidence on the mechanism of action of guanine-based purines, with guanosine presenting antinociceptive effects against a chronic pain model. PERSPECTIVE: This study provides a new role for guanosine: chronic pain modulation. Guanosine presents as a new target for future drug development and might be useful for treatment of neuropathic pain.
Article: Letter to the Editor.Cell Biochemistry and Function 10/2012; · 2.13 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: It is well known that glutamatergic excitotoxicity and oxidative stress are implicated in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). The nucleoside guanosine exerts neuroprotective effects through the antagonism against glutamate neurotoxicity and antioxidant properties. In this study, we evaluated the neuroprotective effect of guanosine in an animal model of chronic HE. Rats underwent bile duct ligation (BDL) and 2 weeks later they were treated with i.p. injection of guanosine 7.5 mg/kg once a day for 1-week. We evaluated the effects of guanosine in HE studying several aspects: a) animal behavior using open field and Y-maze tasks; b) brain rhythm changes in electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings; c) purines and glutamate levels in the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF); and d) oxidative stress parameters in the brain. BDL rats presented increased levels of glutamate, purines and metabolites in the CSF, as well as increased oxidative damage. Guanosine was able not only to prevent these effects but also to attenuate the behavioral and EEG impairment induced by BDL. Our study shows the neuroprotective effects of systemic administration of guanosine in a rat model of HE and highlights the involvement of purinergic system in the physiopathology of this disease.Metabolic Brain Disease 05/2014; 29(3). DOI:10.1007/s11011-014-9548-x · 2.40 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Despite newly developed antiepileptic drugs to suppress epileptic symptoms, approximately one third of patients remain drug refractory. Consequently, there is an urgent need to develop more effective therapeutic approaches to treat epilepsy. A great deal of evidence suggests that endogenous nucleosides, such as adenosine (Ado), guanosine (Guo), inosine (Ino) and uridine (Urd), participate in the regulation of pathomechanisms of epilepsy. Adenosine and its analogues, together with non-adenosine (non-Ado) nucleosides (e.g., Guo, Ino and Urd), have shown antiseizure activity. Adenosine kinase (ADK) inhibitors, Ado uptake inhibitors and Ado-releasing implants also have beneficial effects on epileptic seizures. These results suggest that nucleosides and their analogues, in addition to other modulators of the nucleoside system, could provide a new opportunity for the treatment of different types of epilepsies. Therefore, the aim of this review article is to summarize our present knowledge about the nucleoside system as a promising target in the treatment of epilepsy.Current Medicinal Chemistry 11/2013; DOI:10.2174/1381612819666131119154505 · 3.72 Impact Factor