An update on the immunogenetics of idiopathic inflammatory myopathies: major histocompatibility complex and beyond.
ABSTRACT To update the reader on immunogenetic advances in idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (IIM) over the past 18 months.
In Caucasian IIM, despite a shared association with the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) 8.1 ancestral haplotype (HLA-DRB1*03-DQA1*05-DQB1*02), anti-Jo-1 and anti-PM-Scl antibody-positive cases have differing IIM clinical phenotypes. A study of the HLA-DPB1 region has shown that DPB1*0101 is associated with anti-Jo-1 positivity but not with anti-PM-Scl. IIM single nucleotide polymorphism studies have demonstrated associations in the protein tyrosine phosphatase, nonreceptor type 22, tumour necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-1 genes. The GM 13 allotype has been confirmed as a risk factor in Caucasian IIM. In inclusion body myositis, the HLA 8.1 ancestral haplotype may not only influence disease susceptibility but also disease expression. A follow-up study including a meta-analysis of the apolipoprotein E gene in inclusion body myositis suggests that this gene does not confer risk of disease.
Although a substantial part of the genetic risk for developing adult and juvenile IIM lies within the major histocompatibility complex, recent research suggests that genetic regions outside of the major histocompatibility complex are also potentially involved in conferring IIM disease susceptibility, although with more modest effect sizes. An ongoing and internationally coordinated IIM genome-wide association scan may provide further insights into IIM immunogenetics.
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ABSTRACT: Juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) is a rare but complex and potentially life-threatening autoimmune disease of childhood, primarily affecting proximal muscles and skin. Although the cause of JDM remains unknown it is clear that genetic and environmental influences play a role in the aetiology. In contrast to adults with dermatomyositis, children with JDM are more likely to have complications that are thought to indicate a vasculopathic process, such as severe skin disease, with ulceration or calcinosis, gut vasculopathy or central nervous system disease. New treatments are much needed and are becoming available and being tested through international multicentre trials. This review will focus on recent insights into pathogenesis, the assessment of the disease in children and the modern approach to its treatment.Therapeutic advances in musculoskeletal disease 02/2012; 4(1):41-50. DOI:10.1177/1759720X11424460
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ABSTRACT: In recent years, the detection and characterization of (novel) autoantibodies is becoming increasingly important for the early diagnosis of autoimmune diseases. The idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM, also indicated with myositis) are a group of systemic autoimmune disorders that involve inflammation and weakness of skeletal muscles. One of the hallmarks is the infiltration of inflammatory cells in muscle tissues. A number of myositis-specific autoantibodies have been identified and these may be associated with distinct IIM subclasses and clinical symptoms. Here, we review all myositis-specific autoantibodies identified today as well as their target proteins, together with their clinical associations in IIM patients. Post-translational modifications that might be associated with the generation of autoantibodies and the development of the disease are discussed as well. In addition, we describe well established autoantibody detection techniques that are currently being used in diagnostic laboratories, as well as novel multiplexed methods. The latter techniques provide great opportunities for the simultaneous detection of distinct autoantibodies, but may also contribute to the identification of novel autoantibody profiles, which may have additional diagnostic and prognostic value. The ongoing characterization of novel autoantibody specificities emphasizes the complexity of processes involved in the development of such autoimmune diseases. KeywordsIIM–Myositis-specific autoantibodies–Autoantibody detection–Autoantigen–Multiplex assays–Post-translational modification05/2011; 2(1):5-20. DOI:10.1007/s13317-011-0018-8
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ABSTRACT: Some surveys had inspected the effects of the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-308A/G polymorphism on susceptibility to dermatomyositis (DM), and showed mixed results. To briefly review these consequences, a comprehensive meta-analysis was carried out to estimate the relationship between them much more accurately.PLoS ONE 08/2014; 9(8):e102841. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0102841 · 3.53 Impact Factor