Sagittal cervical alignment after cervical disc arthroplasty and anterior cervical discectomy and fusion: results of a prospective, randomized, controlled trial.
ABSTRACT Radiographic results of a multicenter, prospective randomized study comparing 1-level cervical total disc replacement (TDR-C) with anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF).
To evaluate the effect on device-level lordosis, cranial and caudal adjacent level lordosis, and overall cervical sagittal alignment (C2-C6) after TDR-C or ACDF.
Cervical total disc replacement (TDR-C) has emerged as a promising alternative to ACDF in a select group of patients. The maintenance and/or improvement of sagittal balance is essential in preserving functionality after reconstructive spinal procedures. Recent studies have documented changes in spinal alignment after TDR-C, however, no studies have compared these changes to those noted in matched group of patients that have undergone ACDF.
Radiographic data were obtained from the randomized group of a multicenter, randomized, prospective, controlled study comparing TDR-C (ProDisc-C, Synthes Spine, West Chester, PA) with ACDF in the treatment of 1-level cervical disc disease. Complete radiographic data were available for 89 TDR-C patients (average age: 42.2 years) and 91 ACDF patients (average age: 41.7 years). Cervical lordosis at the device level, cranial and caudal adjacent levels, and total cervical lordosis (C2-C6) were independently measured before surgery and 2 years after surgery using custom image stabilization software (Quantitative Motion Analysis, Medical Metrics, Inc, Houston, TX).
C5-C6 was the most common operative level (TDR-C: 54%; ACDF: 55%). At 2 years after surgery, the TDR-C group experienced statistically significant changes in lordosis of 3.0 degrees (P < 0.001), 0.90 degrees (P = 0.006), and -1.9 degrees (P < 0.001) at the operative, cranial, and caudal adj-acent levels, respectively. ACDF experienced changes in lordosis of 4.2 degrees (P < 0.001), 1.0 degrees (P = 0.001), and -1.5 degrees (P = 0.001), respectively. The between-group differences were significant at the operative level (P = 0.03) and the caudal adjacent level (P = 0.05). Total cervical lordosis increased in both TDR-C and ACDF by 3.1 degrees and 3.8 degrees , respectively (P = 0.49).
In both TDR-C and ACDF, lordosis increased at the device-level, cranial adjacent level, and in total cervical lordosis, while lordosis decreased at the caudal adjacent level. Although ACDF facilitated a greater increase in device level lordosis (+1.25 degrees ) and less loss of lordosis at the caudal adjacent level compared with TDR-C (-0.39 degrees ), the clinical relevance of the small differences remain unknown.
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this current study was to analyze the clinical outcomes after Discover cervical disc replacement and its effects on maintaining cervical lordosis and range of motion (ROM). The possible factors influencing postoperative ROM were analyzed. 27 men and 28 women with a mean age of 46.4 ± 8.7 years were prospectively followed up for 2 years. Clinical outcomes were assessed using Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA), Neck Disability Index (NDI), visual analog scale (VAS) and Odom's criteria. Radiographic information including segment and overall alignment, functional spinal unit (FSU) and overall ROM, and disc heights were prospectively collected during the follow-up. The correlations between the postoperative FSU ROM at last follow-up and influencing factors were analyzed. Mean NDI, JOA and VAS scores showed statistical improvements at last follow-up. Anterior migration of the prosthesis was detected in six cases. Heterotopic ossification was observed in ten patients. Mean FSU angle, endplate angle of the treated level and mean overall cervical alignment were all improved significantly at last follow-up (P < 0.001). However, mean FSU ROM of the treated segment significantly decreased postoperatively (P = 0.008), while mean overall ROM showed no significant differences. A significant correlation was found between preoperative FSU ROM and postoperative FSU ROM by the Pearson correlation coefficient (r = 0.325, P = 0.034). Multiple linear regression analysis confirmed that preoperative FSU ROM contributed independently to a model with a coefficient of determination of 0.37 (P = 0.034). In the 2 years follow-up, the Discover cervical disc arthroplasty has provided satisfactory clinical outcomes. It was able to substantially restore segment and overall cervical alignment while partially maintaining segment and overall cervical ROM. Additionally, we found that postoperative FSU ROM positively correlated with preoperative FSU ROM.European Spine Journal 07/2013; · 2.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion is a standard treatment for symptomatic cervical disc disease, but pseudarthrosis and accelerated adjacent-level disc degeneration may develop. Cervical disc arthroplasty was developed to preserve the kinematics of the functional spinal unit. Trials comparing arthroplasty with anterior cervical discectomy and fusion have shown unclear benefits in terms of clinical results, neck motion at the operated level, adverse events, and the need for secondary surgical procedures. Only randomized clinical trials were included in this meta-analysis, and the search strategy followed the requirements of the Cochrane Library Handbook. Two reviewers independently assessed the methodological quality of each included study and extracted the relevant data. Twenty-seven randomized clinical trials were included; twelve studies were Level I and fifteen were Level II. The results of the meta-analysis indicated longer operative times, more blood loss, lower neck and arm pain scores reported on a visual analog scale, better neurological success, greater motion at the operated level, fewer secondary surgical procedures, and fewer such procedures that involved supplemental fixation or revision in the arthroplasty group compared with the anterior cervical discectomy and fusion group. These differences were significant (p < 0.05). The two groups had similar lengths of hospital stay, Neck Disability Index scores, and rates of adverse events, removals, and reoperations (p > 0.05). The meta-analysis revealed that anterior cervical discectomy and fusion was associated with shorter operative times and less blood loss compared with arthroplasty. Other outcomes after arthroplasty (length of hospital stay, clinical indices, range of motion at the operated level, adverse events, and secondary surgical procedures) were superior or equivalent to the outcomes after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. Therapeutic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 03/2013; 95(6):555-61. · 3.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Adjacent segment disease has become a common topic in spine surgery circles because of the significant increase in fusion surgery in recent years and the development of motion preservation technologies that theoretically should lead to a decrease in this pathology. The purpose of this review is to organize the evidence available in the current literature on this subject. FOR THIS LITERATURE REVIEW, A SEARCH WAS CONDUCTED IN PUBMED WITH THE FOLLOWING KEYWORDS: adjacent segment degeneration and disease. Selection, review, and analysis of the literature were completed according to level of evidence. The PubMed search identified 850 articles, from which 41 articles were selected and reviewed. The incidence of adjacent segment disease in the cervical spine is close to 3% without a significant statistical difference between surgical techniques (fusion vs arthroplasty). Authors report the incidence of adjacent segment disease in the lumbar spine to range from 2% to 14%. Damage to the posterior ligamentous complex and sagittal imbalances are important risk factors for both degeneration and disease. Insufficient evidence exists at this point to support the idea that total disc arthroplasty is superior to fusion procedures in minimizing the incidence of adjacent segment disease. The etiology is most likely multifactorial but it is becoming abundantly clear that adjacent segment disease is not caused by motion segment fusion alone. Fusion plus the presence of abnormal end-fusion alignment appears to be a major factor in creating end-fusion stresses that result in adjacent segment degeneration and subsequent disease. The data presented cast further doubt on previously established rationales for total disc arthroplasty, at least with regard to the effect of total disc arthroplasty on adjacent segment degeneration pathology.Ochsner Journal 01/2014; 14(1):78-83.