Redefining geriatric preoperative assessment using frailty, disability and co-morbidity.
ABSTRACT (1) Determine the relationship of geriatric assessment markers to 6-month postoperative mortality in elderly patients. (2) Create a clinical prediction rule using geriatric markers from preoperative assessment.
Geriatric surgery patients have unique physiologic vulnerability requiring preoperative assessment beyond the traditional evaluation of older adults. The constellation of frailty, disability and comorbidity predict poor outcomes in elderly hospitalized patients.
Prospectively, subjects > or =65 years undergoing a major operation requiring postoperative intensive care unit admission were enrolled. Preoperative geriatric assessments included: Mini-Cog Test (cognition), albumin, having fallen in the past 6-months, hematocrit, Katz Score (function), and Charlson Index (comorbidities). Outcome measures included 6-month mortality (primary) and postdischarge institutionalization (secondary).
One hundred ten subjects (age 74 +/- 6 years) were studied. Six-month mortality was 15% (16/110). Preoperative markers related to 6-month mortality included: impaired cognition (P < 0.01), recent falls (P < 0.01), lower albumin (P < 0.01), greater anemia (P < 0.01), functional dependence (P < 0.01), and increased comorbidities (P < 0.01). Similar statistical relationships were found for all 6 markers and postdischarge institutionalization. Logistic regression identified any functional dependence (odds ratio 13.9) as the strongest predictor of 6-month mortality. Four or more markers in any one patient predicted 6-month mortality with a sensitivity of 81% (13/16) and specificity of 86% (81/94).
Geriatric assessment markers for frailty, disability and comorbidity predict 6-month postoperative mortality and postdischarge institutionalization. The preoperative presence of > or =4 geriatric-specific markers has high sensitivity and specificity for 6-month mortality. Preoperative assessment using geriatric-specific markers is a substantial paradigm shift from the traditional preoperative evaluation of older adults.
SourceAvailable from: Jaroslav Pacovsky[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Owing to the large aging population, a growing number of elderly patients are undergoing surgical treatment. Surgical procedures in elderly patients are associated with a higher risk of complications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of urological surgeries in old patients. The authors carried out a retrospective study, evaluating results and early postoperative complications in patients aged 75 years and older. The cohort of patients included 221 patients who underwent surgical procedures in the department of urology between January 2011 and December 2012. The average age of patients was 78. The results and complications were categorized based on the type of surgery performed, and the Dindo-Clavien scale. The median follow-up was 18 months. All surgeries for malignant tumors were performed successfully with no residual disease. Totally, 48 (22%) complications were recorded. The most serious were as follows: one patient (<0.5%) died; and four (<2%) patients underwent reoperation. The most common complications involved infection, mainly sepsis and surgical site infections. Other complications included mild respiratory insufficiency, delirium, bleeding, etc. Surgeries in elderly patients were effective and safe. The cornerstone of safety is careful preparation and treatment of comorbidities. Complications occurred mainly as a result of emergency procedures during emergency procedures and in major surgeries such as cystectomy and nephrectomy. The standard use of low molecular-weight heparin caused no incidence of thromboembolic disease.Clinical Interventions in Aging 01/2015; 10:379-85. DOI:10.2147/CIA.S73381 · 1.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Impaired functional and cognitive status is an important outcome for older adults undergoing major cardiac surgery. We conducted this pilot study to gauge feasibility of assessing these outcomes longitudinally, from preoperatively up to two time points postoperatively to assess for recovery. We interviewed patients aged ≥65 y preoperatively and repeated functional and cognitive assessments at 4-6 wk and 4-6 mo postoperatively. Simple unadjusted linear regression was used to test whether baseline measures changed at each follow-up time point. Then we used a longitudinal model to predict postoperative recovery overall, adjusting for comorbidity. A total of 62 patients (age 74.7 ± 5.9) underwent scheduled cardiac surgery. Preoperative activities of daily living (ADL) impairment was associated with poorer functional recovery at 4-6 wk postoperatively with each baseline ADL impairment conferring recovery of 0.5 fewer ADLs (P < 0.05). By 4-6 mo, we could no longer detect a difference in recovery. Preoperative cognition and physical activity were not associated with postoperative changes in these domains. A preoperative and postoperative evaluation of function and cognition was integrated into the surgical care of older patients. Preoperative impairments in ADLs may be a means to identify patients who might benefit from careful postoperative planning, especially in terms of assistance with self-care during the first 4-6 wk after cardiac surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc.Journal of Surgical Research 10/2014; 194(1). DOI:10.1016/j.jss.2014.10.043 · 2.12 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Nearly 50% of Americans will have an operation after the age of 65 years. Traditional preoperative anesthesia consultations capture only some of the information needed to identify older patients (defined as ≥65 years of age) undergoing elective surgery who are at increased risk for postoperative complications, prolonged hospital stays, and delayed or hampered functional recovery. As a catalyst to this review, we compared traditional risk scores (eg, cardiac-focused) to geriatric-specific risk measures from two older female patients seen in our preoperative clinic who were scheduled for elective, robotic-assisted hysterectomies. Despite having a lower cardiac risk index and Charlson comorbidity score, the younger of the two patients presented with more subtle negative geriatric-specific risk predictors - including intermediate or pre-frail status, borderline malnutrition, and reduced functional/mobility - which may have contributed to her 1-day-longer length of stay and need for readmission. Adequate screening of physiologic and cognitive reserves in older patients scheduled for surgery could identify at-risk, vulnerable elders and enable proactive perioperative management strategies (eg, strength, balance, and mobility prehabilitation) to reduce adverse postoperative outcomes and readmissions. Here, we describe our initial two cases and review the stress response to surgery and the impact of advanced age on this response as well as preoperative geriatric assessments, including frailty, nutrition, physical function, cognition, and mood state tests that may better predict postoperative outcomes in older adults. A brief overview of the literature on anesthetic techniques that may influence geriatric-related syndromes is also presented.Clinical Interventions in Aging 01/2015; 10:13-27. DOI:10.2147/CIA.S75285 · 1.82 Impact Factor