The extracellular matrix: at the center of it all.

Texas A&M Health Science Center College of Medicine, Division of Molecular Cardiology, 1901 South 1st Street, Building 205, Room 1R24, Temple, TX 76504, USA.
Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology (Impact Factor: 5.22). 09/2009; 48(3):474-82. DOI: 10.1016/j.yjmcc.2009.08.024
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The extracellular matrix is not only a scaffold that provides support for cells, but it is also involved in cell-cell interactions, proliferation and migration. The intricate relationships among the cellular and acellular components of the heart drive proper heart development, homeostasis and recovery following pathological injury. Cardiac myocytes, fibroblasts and endothelial cells differentially express and respond to particular extracellular matrix factors that contribute to cell communication and overall cardiac function. In addition, turnover and synthesis of ECM components play an important role in cardiac function. Therefore, a better understanding of these factors and their regulation would lend insight into cardiac development and pathology, and would open doors to novel targeted pharmacologic therapies. This review highlights the importance of contributions of particular cardiac cell populations and extracellular matrix factors that are critical to the development and regulation of heart function.

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    ABSTRACT: Heart failure represents a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the western society. Cardiac myocyte loss due to apoptosis plays a significant role in the progression of heart failure. The extracellular matrix (ECM) maintains the structural integrity of the heart and allows the transmission of electrical and mechanical signals during cardiac contraction and relaxation. Matricellular proteins, a class of non-structural ECM proteins, play a significant role in ECM homeostasis and intracellular signaling via their interactions with cell surface receptors, structural proteins, and/or soluble extracellular factors such as growth factors and cytokines. Osteopontin (OPN), also called cytokine Eta-1, is a member of matricellular protein family. Normal heart expresses low levels of OPN. However, OPN expression increases markedly under a variety of pathophysiological conditions of the heart. Many human and transgenic mice studies provide evidence that increased OPN expression, specifically in myocytes, associates with increased myocyte apoptosis and myocardial dysfunction. This review summarizes OPN expression in the heart, and its role in myocyte apoptosis and myocardial function.
    Life Sciences 09/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.lfs.2014.09.014 · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Living tissue is composed of cells and extracellular matrix (ECM). In the heart and blood vessels, which are constantly subjected to mechanical stress, ECM molecules form well-developed fibrous frameworks to maintain tissue structure. ECM is also important for biological signaling, which influences various cellular functions in embryonic development, and physiological/pathological responses to extrinsic stimuli. Among ECM molecules, increased attention has been focused on matricellular proteins. Matricellular proteins are a growing group of non-structural ECM proteins highly up-regulated at active tissue remodeling, serving as biological mediators. Tenascin-C (TNC) is a typical matricellular protein, which is highly expressed during embryonic development, wound healing, inflammation, and cancer invasion. The expression is tightly regulated, dependent on the microenvironment, including various growth factors, cytokines, and mechanical stress. In the heart, TNC appears in a spatiotemporal-restricted manner during early stages of development, sparsely detected in normal adults, but transiently re-expressed at restricted sites associated with tissue injury and inflammation. Similarly, in the vascular system, TNC is strongly up-regulated during embryonic development and under pathological conditions with an increase in hemodynamic stress. Despite its intriguing expression pattern, cardiovascular system develops normally in TNC knockout mice. However, deletion of TNC causes acute aortic dissection (AAD) under strong mechanical and humoral stress. Accumulating reports suggest that TNC may modulate the inflammatory response and contribute to elasticity of the tissue, so that it may protect cardiovascular tissue from destructive stress responses. TNC may be a key molecule to control cellular activity during development, adaptation, or pathological tissue remodeling.
    Frontiers in Physiology 07/2014; 5:283. DOI:10.3389/fphys.2014.00283
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Tissue remodelling in ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM), dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), and hypertensive heart disease (HHD) is accompanied by the re-occurrence of fetal tenascin-C (Tn-C) variants. The study was aimed to comparatively analyze the serum levels of Tn-C containing the FNIIIB (B+ Tn-C) or FNIIIC (C+ Tn-C) domain in heart failure patients due to ICM, DCM, and HHD. Methods: 119 male patients with congestive heart failure (45 with ICM, 43 with DCM, 31 with HHD) were included. Measurement of serum levels of B+ and C+ Tn-C was performed using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Results were correlated to clinical, laboratory, echocardiographic, and spiroergometric parameters. Results: Analysis of Tn-C concentrations according to heart failure etiology revealed no significant differences. There was an association of C+ Tn-C serum levels to enlargement of the left atrium in DCM (p < 0.01) and the left ventricle in HHD (p < 0.05). In patients with ICM, C+ Tn-C showed a strong negative correlation to the stress test performance (p = 0.002, R-2: -0.691). Most strikingly, there was a strong correlation between BNP and B+ Tn-C (p = 0.038, R-2: 0.466) as well as C+ Tn-C (p = 0.001, R-2: 0.814) in DCM patients. Conclusions: The present study highlights the impact of Tn-C variants as biomarkers reflecting the extent of cardiac remodeling in heart failure patients. Furthermore, B+ Tn-C can be suggested as an additional tool to estimate ICM performance in patients. Especially in combination with BNP, analysis of Tn-C might pave the way for a more precise evaluation of heart failure patients.
    Clinical laboratory 01/2014; 60(6):1007-13. DOI:10.7754/Clin.Lab.2013.130702 · 1.08 Impact Factor

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