Serum immune activation markers are persistently increased in patients with HIV infection after 6 years of antiretroviral therapy despite suppression of viral replication and reconstitution of CD4+ T cells.

School of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Western Australia, and Department of Clinical Immunology and Immunogenetics, Royal Perth Hospital and PathWest Laboratory Medicine, Perth, Australia.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases (Impact Factor: 5.85). 10/2009; 200(8):1212-5. DOI: 10.1086/605890
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The effect of long-term antiretroviral therapy on serum immune activation markers was assessed in a cohort of 63 patients before and after 6 years of boosted lopinavir-based antiretroviral therapy. High levels of most markers were associated with lower CD4(+) T cell counts at baseline and at year 6, with the exception of soluble cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (sCTLA-4); high levels of sCTLA-4 were associated with higher CD4(+) T cell counts at year 6. Abnormalities of serum immune activation markers persisted after 6 years of ART but probably had different causes. Further investigation of the clinical usefulness of assaying immunoglobulin A, neopterin, and sCTLA-4 levels to assess the effectiveness of treatments for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease are warranted.

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