Serum immune activation markers are persistently increased in patients with HIV infection after 6 years of antiretroviral therapy despite suppression of viral replication and reconstitution of CD4+ T cells.
ABSTRACT The effect of long-term antiretroviral therapy on serum immune activation markers was assessed in a cohort of 63 patients before and after 6 years of boosted lopinavir-based antiretroviral therapy. High levels of most markers were associated with lower CD4(+) T cell counts at baseline and at year 6, with the exception of soluble cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (sCTLA-4); high levels of sCTLA-4 were associated with higher CD4(+) T cell counts at year 6. Abnormalities of serum immune activation markers persisted after 6 years of ART but probably had different causes. Further investigation of the clinical usefulness of assaying immunoglobulin A, neopterin, and sCTLA-4 levels to assess the effectiveness of treatments for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease are warranted.
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ABSTRACT: Increased life expectancy due to improved efficacy of cART has uncovered an increased risk of age-related morbidities in HIV+ individuals and catalyzed significant research into mechanisms driving these diseases. HIV infection increases the risk of non-communicable diseases common in the aged, including cardiovascular disease, neurocognitive decline, non-AIDS malignancies, osteoporosis, and frailty. These observations suggest that HIV accelerates immunological ageing, and there are many immunological similarities with the aged, including shortened telomeres, accumulation of senescent T cells and altered monocyte phenotype/function. However, the most critical similarity between HIV+ individuals and the elderly, which most likely underpins the heightened risk of non-communicable diseases, is chronic inflammation and associated immune activation. Here, we review the similarities between HIV+ individuals and the aged regarding the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases, the current evidence for mechanisms driving these processes and discuss current and potential therapeutic strategies for addressing inflammatory co-morbidity in HIV+ infection.Current HIV/AIDS Reports 01/2014;
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ABSTRACT: Few studies have compared the impact of different antiretroviral regimens on residual immune activation and inflammation with discordant results. Aim of the study was to investigate the impact of various antiretroviral regimens on markers of immune activation and inflammation during the first two years of effective therapy. We studied HIV-infected antiretroviral-naive patients who began cART with either abacavir/lamivudine or tenofovir/emtricitabine, combined with ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (LPV/r), atazanavir (ATV/r) or efavirenz (EFV). All the patients had a virological response within 6 months, which was maintained for 2 years with no change in their ART regimen. C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), soluble CD14 (sCD14), monokine induced by interferon-gamma (MIG) and interferon-gamma-inducible protein-10 (IP-10) were measured in stored plasma obtained at cART initiation and 24 months later. Mean changes from baseline were analyzed on loge-transformed values and multivariable linear regression models were used to study the effect of the treatment components, after adjusting for factors that might have influenced the choice of ART regimen or biomarker levels. Differences were expressed as the mean fold change percentage difference (Delta). Seventy-eight patients (91% males) with a median age of 43 years met the inclusion criteria. Their median baseline CD4 cell count was 315/mm3 and HIV-1 RNA level 4.6 log10 copies/ml. During the 2-years study period, IL-6, IP-10 and MIG levels fell significantly, while hs-CRP and sCD14 levels remained stable. IP-10 and MIG levels declined significantly less strongly with ATV/r than with EFV (IP-10Delta -57%, p = 0.011; MIGDelta -136%, p = 0.007), while no difference was noted between LPV/r and EFV. The decline in IL-6 did not differ significantly across the different treatment components. After the first 2 years of successful cART, IL-6, IP-10 and MIG fell markedly while hs-CRP and sCD14 levels remained stable. The only impact of ART regimen was a smaller fall in markers of immune activation with ATV/r than with EFV. Our results suggest that these markers could be worthwhile when evaluating new antiretroviral drugs.BMC Infectious Diseases 03/2014; 14(1):122. · 3.03 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Inflammation and immune activation have been thrust to center stage in the understanding of HIV-1 disease pathogenesis and progression. Early work demonstrated that heightened levels of immune activation correlated with the extent of CD4 + T cell death in lymphoid tissue; however, this concept was not incorporated into the general view of disease pathogenesis. Since these early studies, the extension of life for patients on combination antiretroviral therapies (cART) has heralded a new era of non-AIDS-related diseases and incomplete restoration of immune function. The common link appears to be ongoing inflammation and immune activation. Thus, despite good control of viral loads, persons living with HIV (PLWH) remain at increased risk of inflammatory-associated complications such as cardiovascular disease and certain cancers. HIV-specific mechanisms as well as non-specific generalized responses to infection contribute to ongoing activation of the immune system. An early loss of gastrointestinal (GI) tract mucosal integrity, the pro-inflammatory cytokine milieu, co-infections and marked destruction of lymph node architecture are all factors contributing to the ongoing activation of the immune system as well as impaired immune recovery. It is becoming increasingly evident that the CD4 count and viral load do not provide a complete picture of the underlying state of the immune system. Heightened levels of inflammatory markers have been shown to predict increased mortality and other adverse events. Therefore, it will be important to incorporate these markers into management algorithms as soon as possible. This is particularly relevant in resource-poor countries where difficulties in cART roll-out and access are still encountered and, therefore, a mechanism for prioritizing individuals for therapy would be of value. This review will focus on the closely inter-related concepts of immune activation and inflammation. Both are broad concepts involving the interaction of various key players in the immune system. Importantly, immune activation promotes inflammation and thrombosis and similarly, inflammation and thrombosis induce immune activation. These concepts are thus intricately linked. Studies highlighting the potentially harmful effects of ongoing inflammation/immune activation are reviewed and the contributions of the GI tract "damage" and other co-infections such as CMV are explored. The complications resulting from persistent immune activation include enhanced CD4 + T cell death, lymphoid tissue destruction, and various pathologies related to chronic inflammation. Ultimately, we envision that the long-term management of the disease will incorporate both the identification and the amelioration of the potentially harmful effects of ongoing immune activation and inflammation.Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences 01/2014; · 3.78 Impact Factor