Serum immune activation markers are persistently increased in patients with HIV infection after 6 years of antiretroviral therapy despite suppression of viral replication and reconstitution of CD4+ T cells.
ABSTRACT The effect of long-term antiretroviral therapy on serum immune activation markers was assessed in a cohort of 63 patients before and after 6 years of boosted lopinavir-based antiretroviral therapy. High levels of most markers were associated with lower CD4(+) T cell counts at baseline and at year 6, with the exception of soluble cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (sCTLA-4); high levels of sCTLA-4 were associated with higher CD4(+) T cell counts at year 6. Abnormalities of serum immune activation markers persisted after 6 years of ART but probably had different causes. Further investigation of the clinical usefulness of assaying immunoglobulin A, neopterin, and sCTLA-4 levels to assess the effectiveness of treatments for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease are warranted.
- SourceAvailable from: Dominique Costagliola[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Few studies have compared the impact of different antiretroviral regimens on residual immune activation and inflammation with discordant results. Aim of the study was to investigate the impact of various antiretroviral regimens on markers of immune activation and inflammation during the first two years of effective therapy. We studied HIV-infected antiretroviral-naive patients who began cART with either abacavir/lamivudine or tenofovir/emtricitabine, combined with ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (LPV/r), atazanavir (ATV/r) or efavirenz (EFV). All the patients had a virological response within 6 months, which was maintained for 2 years with no change in their ART regimen. C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), soluble CD14 (sCD14), monokine induced by interferon-gamma (MIG) and interferon-gamma-inducible protein-10 (IP-10) were measured in stored plasma obtained at cART initiation and 24 months later. Mean changes from baseline were analyzed on loge-transformed values and multivariable linear regression models were used to study the effect of the treatment components, after adjusting for factors that might have influenced the choice of ART regimen or biomarker levels. Differences were expressed as the mean fold change percentage difference (Delta). Seventy-eight patients (91% males) with a median age of 43 years met the inclusion criteria. Their median baseline CD4 cell count was 315/mm3 and HIV-1 RNA level 4.6 log10 copies/ml. During the 2-years study period, IL-6, IP-10 and MIG levels fell significantly, while hs-CRP and sCD14 levels remained stable. IP-10 and MIG levels declined significantly less strongly with ATV/r than with EFV (IP-10Delta -57%, p = 0.011; MIGDelta -136%, p = 0.007), while no difference was noted between LPV/r and EFV. The decline in IL-6 did not differ significantly across the different treatment components. After the first 2 years of successful cART, IL-6, IP-10 and MIG fell markedly while hs-CRP and sCD14 levels remained stable. The only impact of ART regimen was a smaller fall in markers of immune activation with ATV/r than with EFV. Our results suggest that these markers could be worthwhile when evaluating new antiretroviral drugs.BMC Infectious Diseases 03/2014; 14(1):122. · 2.56 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Few studies have examined immune activation profiles in patients with advanced HIV-1 subtype C infection or assessed their potential to predict responsiveness to HAART. BioPlex, ELISA, and nephelometric procedures were used to measure plasma levels of inflammatory biomarkers in HIV-1 subtype C-infected patients sampled before and after 6 months of successful HAART (n = 20); in patients failing HAART (n = 30); and in uninfected controls (n = 8). Prior to HAART, CXCL9, CXCL10, β 2M, sTNF-R1, TGF- β 1, IFN- γ , IL-6, TNF, and sCD14 were significantly elevated in HIV-1-infected patients compared to controls (P < 0.01). All of these markers, with the exception of sTNF-R1, were also elevated in patients failing HAART (P < 0.05). The persistently elevated levels of CXCL9, CXCL10, and β 2M in patients failing therapy in the setting of a marked reduction in these markers in patients on successful HAART suggest that they may be useful not only to monitor immune activation during HAART, but also to distinguish between good and poor responders. In the case of sCD14 and TGF- β 1, the levels of these biomarkers remained persistently elevated despite HAART-induced virological suppression, a finding that is consistent with ongoing monocyte-macrophage activation, underscoring a potential role for adjuvant anti-inflammatory therapy.Mediators of Inflammation 01/2014; 2014:198413. · 2.42 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this review was to summarize recent studies on the effect of early antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV-infected patients on markers of immune activation/inflammation, viral persistence and serious non-AIDS events. Early ART, initiated within days to months of HIV infection, was associated with marked reduction in T-cell activation often reaching levels observed in HIV-uninfected individuals. However, the impact of early ART on markers of innate immune activation, microbial translocation and inflammation/coagulation was less clear. Early ART has also been associated with a significant reduction in the frequency of latently infected cells, which was greater if ART was initiated within days to weeks rather than months following infection. However, few studies have evaluated the relationship between immune activation and viral reservoirs, specifically following early ART. Early ART may potentially reduce serious non-AIDS events and associated mortality, but most of these studies have extrapolated from changes in surrogate markers, such as CD4 : CD8 ratio. Early ART was associated with beneficial effects on multiple markers of immune activation, inflammation and viral persistence. Longer term prospective studies are still needed to determine whether early ART translates to a significant reduction in serious non-AIDS events and mortality.Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS 11/2014; · 4.39 Impact Factor