Depressive symptoms and sexual experiences among early adolescent girls: interpersonal avoidance as moderator.
ABSTRACT Building on the growing body of research that supports the relationship between depressive symptoms and sexual activities in adolescence, we examined how individual differences in interpersonal avoidance and anxiety might moderate this association. Data were collected from 71 early adolescent girls (M age 13.45 years; SD = 0.68; 89% Caucasian) concurrently and 1 year later. Results indicated that greater depressive symptoms predicted a greater frequency of sexual intercourse both concurrently and 1-year later, particularly among more interpersonally avoidant girls. However, greater depressive symptoms predicted a greater frequency of non-intercourse activities 1-year later among less avoidant girls. Implications for understanding how individual differences in interpersonal style may serve as risk or protective factors in dysphoric girls' sexual experiences are discussed.
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ABSTRACT: The newly discovered unicellular micro-alga Coccomyxa actinabiotis proves to be highly radio-tolerant and strongly concentrates radionuclides, as well as large amounts of toxic metals. This study helps in the understanding of the mechanisms involved in the accumulation and detoxification of silver and cobalt. Elemental distribution inside Coccomyxa actinabiotis cells was determined using synchrotron nano X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy at the ID22 nano fluorescence imaging beamline of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The high resolution and high sensitivity of this technique enabled the assessment of elemental associations and exclusions in subcellular micro-algae compartments. A quantitative treatment of the scans was implemented to yield absolute concentrations of each endogenous and exogenous element with a spatial resolution of 100 nm and compared to the macroscopic content in cobalt and silver determined using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The nano X-ray fluorescence imaging was complemented by transmission electron microscopy coupled to X-ray microanalysis (TEM-EDS), yielding differential silver distribution in the cell wall, cytosol, nucleus, chloroplast and mitochondria with unique resolution. The analysis of endogenous elements in control cells revealed that iron had a unique distribution; zinc, potassium, manganese, molybdenum, and phosphate had their maxima co-localized in the same area; and sulfur, copper and chlorine were almost homogeneously distributed among the whole cell. The subcellular distribution and quantification of cobalt and silver in micro-alga, assessed after controlled exposure to various concentrations, revealed that exogenous metals were mainly sequestered inside the cell rather than on mucilage or the cell wall, with preferential compartmentalization. Cobalt was homogeneously distributed outside of the chloroplast. Silver was localized in the cytosol at low concentration and in the whole cell excluding the nucleus at high concentration. Exposure to low concentrations of cobalt or silver did not alter the localization nor the concentration of endogenous elements within the cells. To our knowledge, this is the first report on element co-localization and segregation at the sub-cellular level in micro-algae by means of synchrotron nano X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy.Metallomics 02/2014; 6(2):316. · 3.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Research examining oral sex during adolescence tends to investigate only potential negative consequences without considering its place in sexual development or distinctions between cunnilingus and fellatio. Using retrospective reports from 418 undergraduate women, we examined the relations among young women's ages of initiation of both cunnilingus and fellatio and sexual motives, experiences of sexual coercion, and indicators of psychological functioning. Age at cunnilingus initiation was unrelated to sexual coercion or psychological functioning; however it was related to engaging in sex for personal stimulation and gratification (personal drive motive) and to feel agentic, assertive, and skillful (power motive). Age at fellatio initiation was related to feelings of inferiority compared to others and a devaluing of the self (interpersonal sensitivity). Findings challenge the unilateral assumption that all adolescent sexual activity is negative and indicate the need for future research distinguishing between cunnilingus and fellatio.Journal of Adolescence 04/2012; 35(5):1191-201. · 2.05 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Adolescent dating and sexual activity are consistently associated with risk for depression, yet the pathways underlying this association remain uncertain. Using data on 1,551 sibling pairs (ages 13-18) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the current study utilized a sibling comparison design to assess whether adolescent dating, sexual intercourse with a romantic partner, and sexual intercourse with a nonromantic partner were associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms independent of familial factors. Results indicated that adolescent dating, in and of itself, was not associated with depressive symptoms. The association between depressive symptoms and sexual activity with a romantic partner was fully accounted for by between-family genetic and shared environmental confounds. In contrast, sexual activity with a nonromantic partner was significantly associated with both mean levels of depressive symptoms and clinically severe depression, even within sibling dyads. This relationship was greater for younger adolescents (<15 years). These results are consistent with a growing body of research demonstrating that relationship contexts may be critical moderators of the psychosocial aspects of adolescent sexual experiences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).Journal of Abnormal Psychology 09/2012; · 4.86 Impact Factor