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    ABSTRACT: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a small, single-stranded, non-enveloped RNA virus and belongs to the genus Hepevirus in the Hepeviridae family. Currently, the HEV infection is the most frequent cause of acute hepatitis in the world. In recent years, some studies have been demonstrated that immunosuppressed cases, such organ transplant recipients, cases with HIV infection and patients with hematological malignancies are at risk of HEV infection. But it is not clear whether HEV infection is a major concern in HIV infected patients or not? The answer has considerable significance, because HIV and HEV infection are now both highly endemic in many parts of the world. The purpose of this review is to provide data on the prevalence of HEV infection in HIV infected patients for determination of the significance of HEV/HIV co-infection.
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    ABSTRACT: Humans are frequently exposed to hepatitis E virus (HEV). Nevertheless, the disease mainly affects pregnant women and immunocompromised individuals. Organ recipients receiving immunosuppressants, such as rapalogs, to prevent rejection have a high risk for developing chronic hepatitis following HEV infection. Rapalogs constitute potent inhibitors of mTOR including rapamycin and everolimus. As a master kinase, the mechanism-of-action of mTOR is not only associated with the immunosuppressive capacity of rapalogs but is also tightly regulated during pregnancy because of increased nutritional demands.
    Journal of Hepatology 05/2014; 61(4). DOI:10.1016/j.jhep.2014.05.026 · 10.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatitis E virus is responsible for sporadic cases of acute, self-limited viral hepatitis not only in endemic but also in industrialized countries. In addition, some reports confirm that it can cause chronic infection and even cirrhosis in immunosuppressed and also in patients infected with HIV. There are few data about prevalence and incidence of HEV chronic infection in HIV-HEV coinfected individuals in Spain. The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of anti-HEV IgG in a representative sample of 448 patients infected with HIV and determine the role of age, gender, and CD4 counts in the detection of anti-HEV IgG antibodies in blood. In addition, the clinical features and ALT levels in relation to the presence of anti-HEV IgM and/or HEV-RNA in the blood of these patients were investigated. Anti-HEV IgG antibodies were detected in serum using a commercial enzyme immunoassay. All positive samples were studied further for the presence of anti-HEV IgM antibodies. In addition, HEV RNA was amplified by reverse transcriptase (RT)-nested PCR in all serum samples with IgM anti-HEV. The overall prevalence of anti-HEV IgG was 10.4% (45/448, 95% C.I. 7.2-12.8%). HEV-RNA was found in only one patient out of the 45 anti-HEV IgG positive samples studied. Regarding to gender and CD4 count, no difference in seroprevalence could be observed. This prevalence data suggest that patients infected with HIV can be considered a risk group for HEV infection and that chronic coinfection HEV-HIV seems to be a very rare event. J. Med. Virol. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Medical Virology 01/2014; 86(1). DOI:10.1002/jmv.23804 · 2.22 Impact Factor