AKT Controls Human First Trimester Trophoblast Cell Sensitivity to FAS-Mediated Apoptosis by Regulating XIAP Expression

Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA.
Biology of Reproduction (Impact Factor: 3.45). 10/2009; 82(1):146-52. DOI: 10.1095/biolreprod.109.078972
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The PIK3/AKT pathway plays an important role in both the inhibition of the apoptotic cascade and the promotion of cell growth and proliferation. Multiple apoptosis-related targets of phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PIK3) and protein kinase B (AKT) have been identified, including the antiapoptotic protein XIAP. By phosphorylating XIAP, AKT was previously shown to prevent the ubiquitinization and degradation of XIAP. First-trimester trophoblast cells express high levels of XIAP, which protects them from certain apoptotic stimuli. In this study, we determine that the inhibition of the PIK3/AKT pathway induces XIAP inactivation and the activation of caspase 3 in first-trimester trophoblast cells. Using a specific AKT inhibitor and a XIAP mutant construct, which mimics the AKT phosphorylated form of XIAP, we also demonstrate that these effects are dependent on the phosphorylation of XIAP by AKT. Finally, we show that the selective inhibition of AKT renders normally resistant first-trimester trophoblast cells sensitive to FAS-mediated apoptosis by regulating XIAP expression. Our findings may provide a link between AKT, XIAP, and the regulation of the FAS apoptotic cascade in first-trimester trophoblast cells and contribute to our current knowledge of the molecular mechanisms mediating normal trophoblast physiology during pregnancy.

Download full-text


Available from: Shawn L Chavez, Jun 18, 2015
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Diabetic pregnancy is associated with complications such as early and late embryonic death, fetal growth disorders, placental abnormalities, and embryonal-placental metabolic disorders. Excessive apoptosis and/or changes of proliferation mechanisms are seen as a major event in the pathogenesis of diabetes-induced embryonic death, placental weight and structural anomalies. Akt and ERK1/2 proteins are important for placental and fetal development associated with cellular proliferation and differentiation mechanisms. The mechanism underlying the placental growth regulatory effects of hyperglycemia have not been elucidated. Moreover, it is still not determined how Akt and ERK1/2 proteins related proliferation and apoptosis mechanisms are influenced by Streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rat placental development. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression levels and spatio-temporal immunolocalizations of Akt, p-Akt, ERK1/2 and p-ERK1/2 proteins in normal and STZ-treated diabetic rat placental development. In order to compose the diabetic group, pregnant females were injected with a single dose of 40mg/kg STZ intraperitonally seven days before their scarification at 12th, 14th, 16th, 18th and 20th day of their gestation. We found that maternal diabetic environment led to a decrease in ERK1/2 and Akt phosphorylation during rat placental development. It could be said that MAPK-ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt cell signaling pathways are affected from hyperglycemic conditions in rat placentas. In conclusion, hyperglycemia-induced placental and embryonal developmental abnormalities could be associated with reduction of Akt and ERK1/2 phosphorylation.
    Histology and histopathology 12/2013; · 2.24 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is an enzyme that degrades an essential amino acid, tryptophan, and plays a role in inhibiting the proliferation of T cells and intracellular pathogens. Inhibiting IDO in mice leads to fetal rejection, suggesting its significance in establishing pregnancy. Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR-3) is a key component of the innate immune system that recognizes viral double-stranded RNA and triggers immune reactions by producing type I interferon. Using a human trophoblast cell culture system, we studied the effect of TLR-3 ligation on IDO expression and function by treating trophoblasts with polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid [poly(I:C)] (a synthetic double stranded RNA, which mimics viral RNA). Real-time PCR and Western blot analysis revealed that IDO mRNA and protein expression was significantly induced by poly(I:C). The activity of IDO was also increased by poly(I:C) given that the L-kynurenine concentrations were elevated in conditioned media. Conditioned media from poly(I:C)-treated trophoblasts were found to inhibit the proliferation of human T cells significantly. Poly(I:C) was also shown to induce interferon (IFN)-β mRNA expression in trophoblasts. Recombinant human IFN-β increased IDO mRNA expression in trophoblasts more rapidly than poly(I:C). Pretreating with neutralizing antibody against IFN-β significantly suppressed IDO induction by poly(I:C). Collectively we have demonstrated that ligation of TLR-3 by poly(I:C) induces IDO expression in human first-trimester trophoblasts via an IFN-β-dependent pathway. These findings suggest that upon viral infection, trophoblasts induce IDO and in turn contribute to antimicrobial activity and maintenance of fetomaternal tolerance.
    Endocrinology 09/2011; 152(12):4984-92. DOI:10.1210/en.2011-0278 · 4.64 Impact Factor
  • Source
    01/2011; 02(04). DOI:10.4172/2157-2518.1000121