Pharmacodynamic effect and clinical efficacy of clopidogrel and prasugrel with or without a proton-pump inhibitor: an analysis of two randomised trials
ABSTRACT Proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) are often prescribed in combination with thienopyridines. Conflicting data exist as to whether PPIs diminish the efficacy of clopidogrel. We assessed the association between PPI use, measures of platelet function, and clinical outcomes for patients treated with clopidogrel or prasugrel.
In the PRINCIPLE-TIMI 44 trial, the primary outcome was inhibition of platelet aggregation at 6 h assessed by light-transmission aggregometry. In the TRITON-TIMI 38 trial, the primary endpoint was the composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke. In both studies, PPI use was at physician's discretion. We used a multivariable Cox model with propensity score to assess the association of PPI use with clinical outcomes.
In the PRINCIPLE-TIMI 44 trial, 201 patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention were randomly assigned to prasugrel (n=102) or high-dose clopidogrel (n=99). Mean inhibition of platelet aggregation was significantly lower for patients on a PPI than for those not on a PPI at 6 h after a 600 mg clopidogrel loading dose (23.2+/-19.5% vs 35.2+/-20.9%, p=0.02), whereas a more modest difference was seen with and without a PPI after a 60 mg loading dose of prasugrel (69.6+/-13.5% vs 76.7+/-12.4%, p=0.054). In the TRITON-TIMI 38 trial, 13,608 patients with an acute coronary syndrome were randomly assigned to prasugrel (n=6813) or clopidogrel (n=6795). In this study, 33% (n=4529) of patients were on a PPI at randomisation. No association existed between PPI use and risk of the primary endpoint for patients treated with clopidogrel (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0.94, 95% CI 0.80-1.11) or prasugrel (1.00, 0.84-1.20).
The current findings do not support the need to avoid concomitant use of PPIs, when clinically indicated, in patients receiving clopidogrel or prasugrel.
Daiichi Sankyo Company Limited and Eli Lilly and Company sponsored the trials. This analysis had no funding.
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ABSTRACT: Chronic pain conditions affect at least 116 million US adults and more than one-third of adults worldwide. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are used extensively for the treatment of chronic pain due to their efficacy as anti-inflammatory and analgesic agents. Gastrointestinal toxicity is the most well known adverse effect of NSAID therapy and it may manifest as dyspepsia, ulcers, or bleeding. Current guidelines for the management of patients who require NSAIDs for chronic pain and inflammation recognize the potential toxicity associated with these drugs and the need for gastroprotection. DUEXIS(®) (ibuprofen 800 mg, famotidine 26.6 mg) is a proprietary combination, immediate release tablet containing 800 mg of ibuprofen and 26.6 mg of famotidine. The efficacy of DUEXIS(®) taken three times daily has been demonstrated in two large-scale controlled clinical trials (Registration Endoscopic Studies to Determine Ulcer Formation of HZT-501 Compared with Ibuprofen: Efficacy and Safety Studies (REDUCE) and REDUCE-2) which showed that this new formulation significantly reduced the risk of endoscopic upper gastrointestinal ulcers compared with ibuprofen alone (REDUCE-1, p < 0.0001, REDUCE-2, p <0.05). DUEXIS(®) was also superior to ibuprofen in decreasing the risk for gastric ulcers (REDUCE-1, p < 0.001, REDUCE-2, p < 0.05) as well as duodenal ulcers (REDUCE-1, p < 0.05, REDUCE-2, p < 0.05). Safety results from these two studies indicated that treatment-emergent adverse events occurred in 55% of patients treated with DUEXIS(®)versus 58.7% for ibuprofen, and serious adverse events were recorded for 3.2% of patients treated with DUEXIS(®)versus 3.3% of those on ibuprofen. Adverse events leading to discontinuation occurred in 6.7% of patients treated with DUEXIS(®) and 7.6% for ibuprofen. The combination of ibuprofen and famotidine in a single tablet has the potential to improve adherence to gastroprotective therapy in patients who require NSAID treatment and the use of a histamine type 2 receptor antagonist rather than a proton-pump inhibitor may decrease the risk for clinically significant drug interactions and adverse events (e.g. interaction with clopidogrel, fracture, pneumonia, Clostridium difficile infection).Therapeutic advances in musculoskeletal disease 10/2012; 4(5):327-39. DOI:10.1177/1759720X12444710
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ABSTRACT: Recent studies have reported that concomitant use of clopidogrel with proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) might decrease antiplatelet effects and increase the risk of adverse outcomes after coronary stenting. However, little is known about the difference between clopidogrel and ticlopidine in concomitant use with PPIs, especially within the Asian population. We retrospectively analyzed 302 consecutive patients (248 males, mean age 66 ± 12 years) undergoing primary stenting for acute myocardial infarction from July 2006 to June 2010. PPIs were administered to 92% (278/302) of the patients. The patients were divided into two groups on the basis of clopidogrel (clopidogrel group, n=187) or ticlopidine (ticlopidine group, n=91) with PPI. Their characteristics, medications, and 30-day clinical outcomes were examined. There were no significant differences in 30-day major adverse cardiac events (cardiac death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, and definite stent thrombosis), bleeding events, and stroke between the two groups. The discontinuation of clopidogrel due to side effects was significantly less frequent than that of ticlopidine (1.1% vs 7.7%, p=0.003, respectively). Our findings suggest that concomitant use of clopidogrel with PPIs might be safer than ticlopidine with PPIs in patients undergoing primary stenting for acute myocardial infarction.Journal of Cardiology 03/2012; 60(1):7-11. DOI:10.1016/j.jjcc.2012.02.003 · 2.57 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study aimed to assess if proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) may reduce the effectiveness of clopidogrel, than H2 antagonist (anti-H2) in order to determine rehospitalization for acute coronary syndrome (re-ACS), target vessel revascularization (TVR) and cardiac death. This case-control study included 176 patients with ACS undergoing angioplasty (PCI) with drug-eluting stent implantation. The population was divided into two groups: PPI group (n = 121) consisting of patients receiving at discharge dual antiplatelet therapy (DAT) plus PPI and anti-H2 group (n = 55), consisting of patients receiving at discharge DAT + H2 receptor antagonist (H2RA). In a followup of 36 months the prevalence of ACS event (P = 0.014), TVR (P = 0.031) was higher in the PPI group than in the anti-H2 group; instead there was no statistically significant difference between groups for death. The variables independently associated with ACS were the diabetes, omeprazole, and esomeprazole; instead the variables independently associated with TVR were only omeprazole. Our data shows that the use of omeprazole and esomeprazole, with clopidogrel, is associated with increased risk of adverse outcomes after PCI with drug-eluting stent implantation.01/2012; 2012:692761. DOI:10.5402/2012/692761