Interleukin-15 increases calcineurin expression in 3T3-L1 cells: Possible involvement on in vivo adipocyte differentiation
ABSTRACT Different studies have revealed that the Ca2+-dependent serine/threonine phosphatase calcineurin is involved in the regulation of adipocyte differentiation. Calcineurin acts as a Ca2+-dependent molecular switch that negatively regulates the ability of 3T3-L1 cells to undergo adipocyte differentiation by preventing the expression of critical proadipogenic transcription factors. In this study we investigated the role of interleukin-15 (IL-15), a cytokine previously known to be involved in the control of fat accretion by adipose cells, in the differentiation of the 3T3-L1 preadipose cell line. We found that IL-15 is able to increase alpha-calcineurin mRNA content in white adipose tissue of rats chronically treated with the cytokine and also in the 3T3-L1 preadipose cell line. Moreover, IL-15 promoted a decrease in both leptin mRNA expression and lipid accumulation, as estimated by Red Oil O staining. Cotreatment with IL-15 and FK506 (a calcineurin inhibitor) resulted in no changes in lipid content compared with the non-treated group. These data suggest that IL-15 directly inhibits adipogenesis, possibly by upregulating alpha-calcineurin and preventing the induction of adipocyte differentiation.
SourceAvailable from: Manel Jordana[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Interleukin-15 (IL-15) is an immunomodulatory cytokine that affects body mass regulation independent of lymphocytes; however, the underlying mechanism(s) involved remains unknown. In an effort to investigate these mechanisms, we performed metabolic cage studies, assessed intestinal bacterial diversity and macronutrient absorption, and examined adipose mitochondrial activity in cultured adipocytes and in lean IL-15 transgenic (IL-15tg), overweight IL-15 deficient (IL-15-/-), and control C57Bl/6 (B6) mice. Here we show that differences in body weight are not the result of differential activity level, food intake, or respiratory exchange ratio. Although intestinal microbiota differences between obese and lean individuals are known to impact macronutrient absorption, differing gut bacteria profiles in these murine strains does not translate to differences in body weight in colonized germ free animals and macronutrient absorption. Due to its contribution to body weight variation, we examined mitochondrial factors and found that IL-15 treatment in cultured adipocytes resulted in increased mitochondrial membrane potential and decreased lipid deposition. Lastly, IL-15tg mice have significantly elevated mitochondrial activity and mass in adipose tissue compared to B6 and IL-15-/- mice. Altogether, these results suggest that IL-15 is involved in adipose tissue regulation and linked to altered mitochondrial function.PLoS ONE 12/2014; 9(12):e114799. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0114799 · 3.53 Impact Factor
Article: Exercise is the Real Polypill[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The concept of a "polypill" is receiving growing attention to prevent cardiovascular disease. Yet similar if not overall higher benefits are achievable with regular exercise, a drug-free intervention for which our genome has been haped over evolution. Compared with drugs, exercise is available at low cost and relatively free of adverse effects. We summarize epidemiological evidence on the preventive/therapeutic benefits of exercise and on the main biological mediators involved.Physiology 09/2013; 28(5):330-58. DOI:10.1152/physiol.00019.2013 · 6.75 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Interleukin 15 (IL-15) has recently been proposed as a myokine involved in regulating lipid metabolism. We investigated the effect of exercise training on IL-15 content in skeletal muscle and expression of IL-15 receptor (IL-15R) in adipose tissue of obese rats. After 12 weeks of a high-fat diet, obese rats underwent treadmill running at 26 m/min (60 min each, 5 days/week for 8 weeks). High-fat diet induced obesity, with increased body weight, body fat, and lipid profile. The level of IL-15 immunoreactivity (IL-15-ir) in plasma and gastrocnemius muscle was lower in obese than control rats, and the mRNA level of IL-15 in gastrocnemius muscle was markedly decreased. The mRNA and protein levels of IL-15R in adipose tissue were markedly lower in obese rats. Compared with sedentary obese rats, treadmill running showed decreased body weight and elevated mRNA expression of IL-15 in muscle and elevated IL-15-ir level in plasma and muscle. The mRNA and protein level of IL-15R were increased in adipose tissue in treadmill running obese rats. Our results showed that exercise training improve obesity and reversed the downregulation of the IL-15 in muscle and IL-15R in adipose tissue induced by high-fat diet.Endocrine 10/2012; 43(3). DOI:10.1007/s12020-012-9809-6 · 3.53 Impact Factor