Blockage of A2A and A3 adenosine receptors decreases the desensitization of human GABA(A) receptors microtransplanted to Xenopus oocytes.
ABSTRACT We previously found that the endogenous anticonvulsant adenosine, acting through A(2A) and A(3) adenosine receptors (ARs), alters the stability of currents (I(GABA)) generated by GABA(A) receptors expressed in the epileptic human mesial temporal lobe (MTLE). Here we examined whether ARs alter the stability (desensitization) of I(GABA) expressed in focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) and in periglioma epileptic tissues. The experiments were performed with tissues from 23 patients, using voltage-clamp recordings in Xenopus oocytes microinjected with membranes isolated from human MTLE and FCD tissues or using patch-clamp recordings of pyramidal neurons in epileptic tissue slices. On repetitive activation, the epileptic GABA(A) receptors revealed instability, manifested by a large I(GABA) rundown, which in most of the oocytes (approximately 70%) was obviously impaired by the new A(2A) antagonists ANR82, ANR94, and ANR152. In most MTLE tissue-microtransplanted oocytes, a new A(3) receptor antagonist (ANR235) significantly improved I(GABA) stability. Moreover, patch-clamped pyramidal neurons from human neocortical slices of periglioma epileptic tissues exhibited altered I(GABA) rundown on ANR94 treatment. Our findings indicate that antagonizing A(2A) and A(3) receptors increases the I(GABA) stability in different epileptic tissues and suggest that adenosine derivatives may offer therapeutic opportunities in various forms of human epilepsy.
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ABSTRACT: In the adult mammalian CNS, GABA is the main inhibitory transmitter. It inhibits neuronal firing by increasing a Cl- conductance. Bicuculline blocks this effect and induces interictal discharges. A different picture is present in neonatal hippocampal neurones, where synaptically released or exogenously applied GABA depolarizes and excites neuronal membranes--an effect that is due to a different Cl- gradient. In fact, during the early neonatal period, GABA acting on GABAA receptors provides most of the excitatory drive, whereas excitatory glutamatergic synapses are quiescent. It is suggested that during development GABA exerts mainly a trophic action through membrane depolarization and a rise in intracellular Ca2+.Trends in Neurosciences 01/1992; 14(12):515-9. · 14.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A ribonuclease that is co-specific for poly C and poly U has been isolated from the fruiting bodies of the black oyster mushroom. The enzyme possesses a molecular mass of 14 kDa, and is unadsorbed on DEAE-cellulose and adsorbed on Affi-gel blue gel and CM-cellulose. A pH of 7 is required for the enzyme to exhibit maximal activity. The activity of the enzyme does not vary appreciably over the temperature range 30-60 degrees C, but drops when the temperature is reduced to 20 degrees C or raised to and above 70 degrees C. The ribonuclease does not exert any inhibitory activity toward HIV-1 reverse transcriptase.Peptides 05/2004; 25(4):685-7. · 2.43 Impact Factor