Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of live oral cholera vaccine 638 in Cuban adults.
ABSTRACT A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the safety, reactogenicity and the immunogenicity of a 2 x 10(9)CFU dose of the 638 lyophilized live attenuated cholera vaccine for oral administration, formulated and produced at Finlay Institute, City of Havana, Cuba. Thirty-six healthy female and male adult volunteers from 18 to 40 years old were involved, clinically examined and laboratory tested after the informed consent signature. Adverse events were monitored and seroconversion rates and geometrical mean titer (GMT) of vibriocidal antibodies were tested in volunteer's sera samples. Neither serious adverse events nor other damages to the volunteers due to vaccine or placebo feeding were reported during the clinical follow-up period of this study; none of the adverse events registered within the first 72 h after inoculation were life-threatening for volunteers. Neither severe nor moderate adverse events were reported. Sixty-one percent of subjects showed mild expected adverse events in an interval lower than 24h up to the first 72 h, 75% of these in the vaccinated group and 18% in the placebo group. Fourteen days after inoculation the GMT of vibriocidal antibodies in the vaccine group significantly increased in comparison to the placebo group. All subjects in the vaccine group (24) seroconverted (100%). Results show that this vaccine is safe, well tolerated and immunogenic in healthy female and male volunteers.
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ABSTRACT: Cholera remains a huge public health problem. Although in 1894, the first cholera vaccination was reported, an ideal vaccine that meets all the requirements of the WHO has not yet been produced. Among the different approaches used for cholera vaccination, attenuated vaccines represent a major category; these vaccines are beneficial in being able to induce a strong protective response after a single administration. However, they have possible negative effects on immunocompromised patient populations. Both the licensed CVD103-HgR and other vaccine approaches under development are detailed in this article, such as the Vibrio cholerae 638 vaccine candidate, Peru-15 or CholeraGarde(®) and the VA1.3, VA1.4, IEM 108 and VCUSM2 vaccine candidates. In another strategy, killed V. cholerae vaccines have been developed, including Dukoral(®), mORCAX(®) and Sanchol™. The killed vaccines are already sold, and they have successfully demonstrated their potential to protect populations in endemic areas or after natural disasters. However, these vaccines do not fulfill all the requirements of the WHO because they fail to confer long-term protection, are not suitable for children under two years, require more than a single dose and require a distribution chain with cold storage. Lastly, other vaccine strategies under development are summarized in this review. Among these strategies, vaccine candidates based on alternative drug delivery systems that have been reported lately in the literature are discussed, such as microparticles, proteoliposomes, LPS subunits, DNA vaccines and rice seeds containing toxin subunits. Preliminary results reported by many groups working on alternative delivery systems for cholera vaccines demonstrate the importance of new technologies in addressing old problems such as cholera. Although a fully ideal vaccine has not yet been designed, promising steps have been reported in the literature resulting in hope for the fight against cholera.Vaccine 07/2013; · 3.49 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Deployment of oral cholera vaccine (OCV) on the Island of Hispaniola has been considered since the emergence of the disease in October of 2010. At that time, emergency response focused on the time-tested measures of treatment to prevent deaths and sanitation to diminish transmission. Use of the limited amount of vaccine available in the global market was recommended for demonstration activities, which were carried out in 2012. As transmission continues, vaccination was recommended in Haiti as one component of a comprehensive initiative supported by an international coalition to eliminate cholera on the Island of Hispaniola. Leveraging its delivery to strengthen other cholera prevention measures and immunization services, a phased OCV introduction is pursued in accordance with global vaccine supply. Not mutually exclusive or sequential deployment options include routine immunization for children over the age of 1 year and campaigns in vulnerable metropolitan areas or rural areas with limited access to health services.The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 10/2013; 89(4):682-687. · 2.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A placebo-controlled randomized, double-blind, clinical trial was carried out to assess the safety, reactogenicity, and immunogenicity of the lyophilized vaccine candidate against cholera derived from the live attenuated 638 Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor Ogawa strain. One hundred and twenty presumably healthy female and male adult volunteers aged between 18 and 50 years were included. They were from Maputo, Mozambique a cholera endemic area, where, in addition, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seroprevalence is from 20 to 30%. A dose of 2 x 10 9 colony forming units (CFU) was given to 80 subjects and other 40 received only vaccine lyoprotectors as a placebo control. Out-patient follow-up of adverse events was carried out during the following 30 days after vaccination. The immune response was evaluated by the estimation of seroconversion rate and the geometric mean titer (GMT) of vibriocidal antibodies in the sera from volunteers that was collected previously, and at days 14 and 21 after immunization. No serious adverse events were reported. The adverse events found in the vaccine group were similar to those of the placebo groups. They were independent from the detection of antibodies against HIV-1, HIV-2, hepatitis (H) A; HC and hepatitis B surface antigen. The presence of helminthes did not modify the incidence of adverse events. The 638 vaccine strain was isolated in 37 (46.25%) vaccinated volunteer's feces. The peak of the GMT of vibriocidal antibodies in the vaccine group was 9056 versus 39 in the placebo group at 14 days with a total seroconversion of 97.4% at 21 days. The 638 vaccine candidate is safe and immunogenic in a cholera endemic region.Vaccimonitor. 01/2011; 20(3):1-8.