[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lhermitte-Duclos Disease (LDD), a neurological manifestation of Cowden syndrome (CS), is a rare and benign cerebellar disorder, featured by dysplastic cerebellar ganglion cells which replace granular and Purkinje cells. PTEN is confirmed as the susceptibility gene for CS which represents the most complex features and is not easily recognizable. We reported two index patients with LDD diagnosed either in an isolated form or coexist with CS. These two patients displayed progressive though comparable phenotypes and were found to carry an identical PTEN c.950_953delTACT mutation in either germline or somatic sources of DNA, respectively. Negative or moderate expression levels of PTEN were validated by immunohistochemistry in corresponding patients' affected tissues. This study has revealed a novel pathogenicity locus to LDD/CS as a candidate for early molecular diagnosis. In addition, the differential PTEN mutation status with corresponding LDD phenotypes suggests a potential correlation between germline or somatic mutation and coexisting LDD/CS or isolated LDD, respectively. Furthermore, our data could lend some reference to the underlying molecular mechanism of LDD pathogenesis in the future.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) is a critical cell endogenous inhibitor of phosphoinositide signaling in mammalian cells. PTEN dephosphorylates phosphoinositide trisphosphate (PIP
), and by so doing PTEN has the function of negative regulation of Akt, thereby inhibiting this key intracellular signal transduction pathway. In numerous cell types, PTEN loss-of-function mutations result in unopposed Akt signaling, producing numerous effects on cells. Numerous reports exist regarding mutations in PTEN leading to unregulated Akt and human disease, most notably cancer. However, less is commonly known about nonmutational regulation of PTEN. This review focuses on an emerging literature on the regulation of PTEN at the transcriptional, posttranscriptional, translational, and posttranslational levels. Specifically, a focus is placed on the role
developmental signaling pathways
play in PTEN regulation; this includes insulin-like growth factor, NOTCH, transforming growth factor, bone morphogenetic protein, wnt, and hedgehog signaling. The regulation of PTEN by developmental mediators affects critical biological processes including neuronal and organ development, stem cell maintenance, cell cycle regulation, inflammation, response to hypoxia, repair and recovery, and cell death and survival. Perturbations of PTEN regulation consequently lead to human diseases such as cancer, chronic inflammatory syndromes, developmental abnormalities, diabetes, and neurodegeneration.
09/2015; 2015(12):282567. DOI:10.1155/2015/282567
Note: This list is based on the publications in our database and might not be exhaustive.
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.