[Diabetes and socio-economic deprivation. A study in a large French population].
ABSTRACT Socio-economically deprived subjects are reported to have an increased risk of diabetes and related complications. The aim of this study was to confirm this relation in a large French population. The study subjects consisted of 32,435 men and 16,378 women aged from 35 to 80 years who had a free health checkup at the IPC Center (Investigations Preventives et Cliniques, Paris-Ile de France) between January 2003 and December 2006. Socio-economic deprivation was evaluated by using the EPICES approach (Evaluation de la Précarité et des Inégalités de santé dans les Centres d'Examens de Santé de France). Socio-economically deprived subjects were defined as those with scores in the 5th quintile. The prevalence of diabetes among deprived men and women was respectively 6% and 7% at age 35-59 years, and 18% and 15% at age 60-80 years. The prevalence of diabetes increased with level of deprivation. Compared to the 1st quintile of the EPICES score distribution, diabetes was three to eight times more frequent in the 5th quintile. After taking into account age, the body mass index, waist circumference, and anxiety and depression, the risk that deprived subjects would be diabetic (odds ratio) was respectively 4.2 and 5.2 for men and women aged 35-39 years, and 3.5 and 2.2 for those aged 60-80 years. The following cardiovascular risk markers were significantly higher or more frequent among deprived subjects: body mass, abdominal obesity, high blood pressure and the metabolic syndrome in women; and lower HDL cholesterol, higher triglyceride levels, proteinuria, a higher heart rate and additional ECG abnormalities in both men and women. Other indicators of poor health were also more frequent among deprived subjects, including anxiety and depression, smoking (among men), elevated gamma-GT and alkaline phosphatase levels, lung vital capacity, visual disorders, and dental plaque. Finally, deprived subjects also had more limited access to health care. Thus, socio-economic status markedly influences the risk of diabetes, independently of confounding factors. Several markers of cardiovascular risk and poor health were significantly more frequent among socio-economically deprived subjects, who also had more limited access to health care.
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ABSTRACT: China has the largest number of people with diabetes in the world. Over the last 30 years China has experienced rapid economic growth and a growing income gap between rich and poor. The population is ageing, however diabetes in older people has not been well studied to date. In this study we determined incidence and predictors of diabetes in older Chinese people. During 2001, using a standard interview method, we examined 1,317 adults aged ≥65 years who did not have diabetes in the city of Hefei, and characterized baseline risk factors. Over 7.5 years of follow up, we documented incident diabetes using self-reported doctor diagnosis and the cause of death in the whole cohort, and HbA(1C) ≥48 mmol/mol in a nested case-control sample. A multivariate Cox regression model was employed to investigate risk of diabetes in relation to baseline risk factors. During follow up, 119 persons had newly diagnosed diabetes. World age-standardised incidence of diabetes was 24.5 (95% CI 19.5-29.5) per 1,000 person-years. Risk of diabetes was significantly and positively associated with income, waist circumference and body mass index, smoking and uncontrolled hypertension, but negatively associated with having a hobby of walking and frequency of visiting children/other relatives and contacting neighbours/friends. Higher income was significantly associated with increased diabetes risk regardless of cardiovascular and psychosocial risk factors. Compared to those with middle income and no psychosocial risk factors, the hazard ratio for incident diabetes among participants with high income and psychosocial risk was 2.13 (95% CI 1.02-4.45). Increasing incidence of diabetes in relation to high income has become an important public health issue in China. Maintaining social networks and gentle physical activities and reducing psychosocial factors may be integrated into current multi-faceted preventive strategies for curbing the epidemic of diabetes in the older population.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(11):e50957. · 4.09 Impact Factor
Article: Prevalence of diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose regulation in Spain: the Di@bet.es Study.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The Di@bet.es Study is the first national study in Spain to examine the prevalence of diabetes and impaired glucose regulation. A population-based, cross-sectional, cluster sampling study was carried out, with target population being the entire Spanish population. Five thousand and seventy-two participants in 100 clusters (health centres or the equivalent in each region) were randomly selected with a probability proportional to population size. Participation rate was 55.8%. Study variables were a clinical and demographic structured survey, lifestyle survey, physical examination (weight, height, BMI, waist and hip circumference, blood pressure) and OGTT (75 g). Almost 30% of the study population had some carbohydrate disturbance. The overall prevalence of diabetes mellitus adjusted for age and sex was 13.8% (95% CI 12.8, 14.7%), of which about half had unknown diabetes: 6.0% (95% CI 5.4, 6.7%). The age- and sex-adjusted prevalence rates of isolated impaired fasting glucose (IFG), isolated impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and combined IFG-IGT were 3.4% (95% CI 2.9, 4.0%), 9.2% (95% CI 8.2, 10.2%) and 2.2% (95% CI 1.7, 2.7%), respectively. The prevalence of diabetes and impaired glucose regulation increased significantly with age (p < 0.0001), and was higher in men than in women (p < 0.001). The Di@bet.es Study shows, for the first time, the prevalence rates of diabetes and impaired glucose regulation in a representative sample of the Spanish population.Diabetologia 01/2012; 55(1):88-93. · 6.81 Impact Factor