Genetic inhibition of calcineurin induces diastolic dysfunction in mice with chronic pressure overload.
ABSTRACT Calcineurin is a Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase that induces myocardial growth in response to several physiological and pathological stimuli. Calcineurin inhibition, induced either via cyclosporine or genetically, can decrease myocardial hypertrophy secondary to pressure overload without affecting left ventricular (LV) systolic function. Since hypertrophy can also affect LV diastolic function, the goal of this study was to examine the effects of chronic pressure overload (2 wk aortic banding) in transgenic (Tg) mice overexpressing Zaki-4beta (TgZ), a specific endogenous inhibitor of calcineurin, on LV diastolic function. As expected, in the TgZ mice with calcineurin inhibitor overexpression, aortic banding reduced the degree of LV hypertrophy, as assessed by LV weight-to-body weight ratio (3.5 + or - 0.1) compared with that in non-Tg mice (4.6 + or - 0.2). LV systolic function remained compensated in both groups with pressure overload. However, the LV end-diastolic stress-to-LV end-diastolic dimension ratio, an index of diastolic stiffness and LV pressure half-time and isovolumic relaxation time, two indexes of isovolumic relaxation, increased significantly more in TgZ mice with aortic banding. Protein levels of phosphorylated phospholamban (PS16), sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase 2a, phosphorylated ryanodine receptor, and the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger were also reduced significantly (P < 0.05) in the banded TgZ mice. As expected, genetic calcineurin inhibition inhibited the development of LV hypertrophy with chronic pressure overload but also induced LV diastolic dysfunction, as reflected by both impaired isovolumic relaxation and increased myocardial stiffness. Thus genetic calcineurin inhibition reveals a new mechanism regulating LV diastolic function.
Article: Myocyte-enriched calcineurin-interacting protein, MCIP1, inhibits cardiac hypertrophy in vivo[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Signaling events controlled by calcineurin promote cardiac hypertrophy, but the degree to which such pathways are required to transduce the effects of various hypertrophic stimuli remains uncertain. In particular, the administration of immunosuppressive drugs that inhibit calcineurin has inconsistent effects in blocking cardiac hypertrophy in various animal models. As an alternative approach to inhibiting calcineurin in the hearts of intact animals, transgenic mice were engineered to overexpress a human cDNA encoding the calcineurin-binding protein, myocyte-enriched calcineurin-interacting protein-1 (hMCIP1) under control of the cardiac-specific, α-myosin heavy chain promoter (α-MHC). In unstressed mice, forced expression of hMCIP1 resulted in a 5–10% decline in cardiac mass relative to wild-type littermates, but otherwise produced no apparent structural or functional abnormalities. However, cardiac-specific expression of hMCIP1 inhibited cardiac hypertrophy, reinduction of fetal gene expression, and progression to dilated cardiomyopathy that otherwise result from expression of a constitutively active form of calcineurin. Expression of the hMCIP1 transgene also inhibited hypertrophic responses to β-adrenergic receptor stimulation or exercise training. These results demonstrate that levels of hMCIP1 producing no apparent deleterious effects in cells of the normal heart are sufficient to inhibit several forms of cardiac hypertrophy, and suggest an important role for calcineurin signaling in diverse forms of cardiac hypertrophy. The future development of measures to increase expression or activity of MCIP proteins selectively within the heart may have clinical value for prevention of heart failure.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 04/2001; · 9.68 Impact Factor