Nonparticipatory Stiffness in the Male Perioral Complex

Department of Speech-Language-Hearing: Sciences and Disorders, Communication Neuroscience Laboratories, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS.
Journal of Speech Language and Hearing Research (Impact Factor: 2.07). 09/2009; 52(5):1353-9. DOI: 10.1044/1092-4388(2009/08-0101)
Source: PubMed


The objective of this study was to extend previous published findings in the authors' laboratory using a new automated technology to quantitatively characterize nonparticipatory perioral stiffness in healthy male adults.
Quantitative measures of perioral stiffness were sampled during a nonparticipatory task using a computer-controlled linear servo motor to impose a series of tensile displacements over a span of approximately 24 mm at the oral angle in 20 healthy young male adults. Perioral electromyograms were simultaneously sampled to confirm nonparticipation or passive muscle state. Perioral stiffness, derived as a quotient from resultant force (DeltaF) and oral span (DeltaX), was modeled with regression techniques and subsequently compared to previously reported perioral stiffness data for female adults.
Multilevel regression analysis revealed a significant quadratic relation between the perioral stiffness and interangle span; however, no significant difference was found between adult males and females.
These normative measures will have application to future studies designed to objectively assess the effects of pathology (i.e., progressive neuromotor disease, traumatic brain insult) and intervention (pharmacologic, neurosurgical, and reconstructive surgery of the face [i.e., cleft lip, trauma, missile injuries]) on facial animation and speech kinematics.

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    • "Recently, perioral tissue stiffness has been measured using a wall-mounted linear actuator operating under position feedback to sequentially impose step increases in interangle lip span in healthy female (Seibel & Barlow, 2007) and male adults (Chu et al., 2009) sampled under a passive (no-contraction) condition. The methods used however required head stabilization in a cephalostat for several minutes during the presentation of lip displacements. "
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    ABSTRACT: A new device and automated measurement technology known as OroSTIFF is described to characterize non-participatory perioral stiffness in healthy adults for eventual application to patients with orofacial movement disorders associated with neuromotor disease, traumatic injury, or congenital clefts of the upper lip. Previous studies of perioral biomechanics required head stabilization for extended periods of time during measurement, which precluded sampling patients with involuntary body/head movements (dyskinesias), or pediatric subjects. The OroSTIFF device is face-referenced and avoids the complications associated with head-restraint. Supporting data of non-participatory perioral tissue stiffness using OroSTIFF are included from 10 male and 10 female healthy subjects. The OroSTIFF device incorporates a pneumatic glass air cylinder actuator instrumented for pressure, and an integrated subminiature displacement sensor to encode lip aperture. Perioral electromyograms were simultaneously sampled to confirm passive muscle state for the superior and inferior divisions of the orbicularis oris muscles. Perioral stiffness, derived as a quotient from resultant force (DeltaF) and interangle span (DeltaX), was modeled with multilevel regression techniques. Real-time calculation of the perioral stiffness function demonstrated a significant quadratic relation between imposed interangle stretch and resultant force. This stiffness growth function also differed significantly between males and females. This study demonstrates the OroSTIFF 'proof-of-concept' for cost-effective non-invasive stimulus generation and derivation of perioral stiffness in a group of healthy unrestrained adults, and a case study to illustrate the dose-dependent effects of Levodopa on perioral stiffness in an individual with advanced Parkinson's disease who exhibited marked dyskinesia and rigidity.
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