Article

Genome-wide functional analysis reveals that infection-associated fungal autophagy is necessary for rice blast disease.

School of Biosciences, University of Exeter, Geoffrey Pope Building, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QD, United Kingdom.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (Impact Factor: 9.81). 09/2009; 106(37):15967-72. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0901477106
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To cause rice blast disease, the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae elaborates specialized infection structures called appressoria, which use enormous turgor to rupture the tough outer cuticle of a rice leaf. Here, we report the generation of a set of 22 isogenic M. oryzae mutants each differing by a single component of the predicted autophagic machinery of the fungus. Analysis of this set of targeted deletion mutants demonstrated that loss of any of the 16 genes necessary for nonselective macroautophagy renders the fungus unable to cause rice blast disease, due to impairment of both conidial programmed cell death and appressorium maturation. In contrast, genes necessary only for selective forms of autophagy, such as pexophagy and mitophagy, are dispensable for appressorium-mediated plant infection. A genome-wide analysis therefore demonstrates the importance of infection-associated, nonselective autophagy for the establishment of rice blast disease.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
82 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Because of great challenges and workload in deleting genes on a large scale, the functions of most genes in pathogenic fungi are still unclear. In this study, we developed a high-throughput gene knockout system using a novel yeast-Escherichia-Agrobacterium shuttle vector, pKO1B, in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. Using this method, we deleted 104 fungal-specific Zn2Cys6 transcription factor (TF) genes in M. oryzae. We then analyzed the phenotypes of these mutants with regard to growth, asexual and infection-related development, pathogenesis, and 9 abiotic stresses. The resulting data provide new insights into how this rice pathogen of global significance regulates important traits in the infection cycle through Zn2Cys6TF genes. A large variation in biological functions of Zn2Cys6TF genes was observed under the conditions tested. Sixty-one of 104 Zn2Cys6 TF genes were found to be required for fungal development. In-depth analysis of TF genes revealed that TF genes involved in pathogenicity frequently tend to function in multiple development stages, and disclosed many highly conserved but unidentified functional TF genes of importance in the fungal kingdom. We further found that the virulence-required TF genes GPF1 and CNF2 have similar regulation mechanisms in the gene expression involved in pathogenicity. These experimental validations clearly demonstrated the value of a high-throughput gene knockout system in understanding the biological functions of genes on a genome scale in fungi, and provided a solid foundation for elucidating the gene expression network that regulates the development and pathogenicity of M. oryzae.
    PLoS Pathogens 10/2014; 10(10):e1004432. · 8.14 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae is a model for studying fungal-plant interactions. Although it produces two types of spores (microconidia and macroconidia), previous infection studies have exclusively dealt with macroconidia. Germination of microconidia has not been reported, and their role in plant infection is not defined. Here we show that approximately 10% of microconidia germinate on plant surfaces, and that colonies derived from germinated microconidia are normal in growth and pathogenesis. In infection assays with rice and barley seedlings, microconidia fail to infect intact plants, but they can colonize and develop necrotic lesions on wounded leaves and stems. Microconidia also cause disease symptoms on inoculated spikelets in infection assays with barley and Brachypodium heads. Furthermore, microconidia are detected inside rice plants that developed blast lesions under laboratory or field conditions. Therefore, microconidia can germinate and are infectious, and may be an important factor in the rice blast cycle.
    Nature Communications 01/2014; 5:4518. · 10.74 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Plant pathogenic fungi are the most diverse and drastic causal agents of crop diseases threatening stable food production all over the world. Plant have evolved efficient innate immune system to scout and counterattack fungal invasion and pathogenic fungi also developed virulence system to nullify plant resistance machinery or signaling pathways and to propagate and dominate within their niche. A growing body of evidences suggests that post translational modifications (PTMs) and selective/nonselective degradations of proteins involved in virulence expression of plant pathogenic fungi and plant defense machinery should play pivotal roles during the compatible and incompatible interactions. This review elucidates recent investigations about the effects of PTMs and protein degradations on host defense and fungal pathogens' invasions.
    The Korean Journal of Mycology. 01/2010; 38(2).

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
18 Downloads
Available from
May 31, 2014