Genome-wide functional analysis reveals that infection-associated fungal autophagy is necessary for rice blast disease.

School of Biosciences, University of Exeter, Geoffrey Pope Building, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QD, United Kingdom.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (Impact Factor: 9.81). 09/2009; 106(37):15967-72. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0901477106
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To cause rice blast disease, the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae elaborates specialized infection structures called appressoria, which use enormous turgor to rupture the tough outer cuticle of a rice leaf. Here, we report the generation of a set of 22 isogenic M. oryzae mutants each differing by a single component of the predicted autophagic machinery of the fungus. Analysis of this set of targeted deletion mutants demonstrated that loss of any of the 16 genes necessary for nonselective macroautophagy renders the fungus unable to cause rice blast disease, due to impairment of both conidial programmed cell death and appressorium maturation. In contrast, genes necessary only for selective forms of autophagy, such as pexophagy and mitophagy, are dispensable for appressorium-mediated plant infection. A genome-wide analysis therefore demonstrates the importance of infection-associated, nonselective autophagy for the establishment of rice blast disease.

Download full-text


Available from: Nick Talbot, Jul 04, 2015
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae is a global food security threat due to its destruction of cultivated rice. Of the world's rice harvest, 10-30 % is lost each year to this pathogen, and changing climates are likely to favor its spread into new areas. Insights into how the fungus might be contained could come from the wealth of molecular and cellular studies that have been undertaken in order to shed light on the biological underpinnings of blast disease, aspects of which we review herein. Infection begins when a three-celled spore lands on the surface of a leaf, germinates, and develops the specialized infection structure called the appressorium. The mature appressorium develops a high internal turgor that acts on a thin penetration peg, forcing it through the rice cuticle and into the underlying epidermal cells. Primary then invasive hyphae (IH) elaborate from the peg and grow asymptomatically from one living rice cell to another for the first few days of infection before host cells begin to die and characteristic necrotic lesions form on the surface of the leaf, from which spores are produced to continue the life cycle. To gain new insights into the biology of rice blast disease, we argue that, conceptually, the infection process can be viewed as two discrete phases occurring in markedly different environments and requiring distinct biochemical pathways and morphogenetic regulation: outside the host cell, where the appressorium develops in a nutrient-free environment, and inside the host cell, where filamentous growth occurs in a glucose-rich, nitrogen-poor environment, at least from the perspective of the fungus. Here, we review the physiological and metabolic changes that occur in M. oryzae as it transitions from the surface to the interior of the host, thus enabling us to draw lessons about the strategies that allow M. oryzae cells to thrive in rice cells.
    Protoplasma 08/2013; 251(1). DOI:10.1007/s00709-013-0541-8 · 3.17 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Magnaporthe oryzae is a devastating pathogen of rice and wheat. It is a hemibiotroph that exhibits symptomless biotrophic growth for the first 4 to 5 days of infection of susceptible cultivars before becoming necrotrophic. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of how M. oryzae is able to grow, acquire nutrients, and interact with the plant cell during infection. In particular, we describe direct mechanisms (such as the integration of carbon and nitrogen metabolism by trehalose-6-phosphate synthase 1) and indirect mechanisms (such as the suppression of host responses) that allow M. oryzae to utilize available host nutrient. We contrast the ability of M. oryzae to voraciously metabolize a wide range of carbon and nitrogen sources in vitro with the carefully orchestrated development it displays during the biotrophic phase of in planta growth and ask how the two observations can be reconciled. We also look at how nutrient acquisition and effector biology might be linked in order to facilitate rapid colonization of the plant host.
    Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 10/2012; 25(10):1286-93. DOI:10.1094/MPMI-12-11-0326 · 4.46 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Plants use pattern recognition receptors to defend themselves from microbial pathogens. These receptors recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and activate signaling pathways that lead to immunity. In rice (Oryza sativa), the chitin elicitor binding protein (CEBiP) recognizes chitin oligosaccharides released from the cell walls of fungal pathogens. Here, we show that the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae overcomes this first line of plant defense by secreting an effector protein, Secreted LysM Protein1 (Slp1), during invasion of new rice cells. We demonstrate that Slp1 accumulates at the interface between the fungal cell wall and the rice plasma membrane, can bind to chitin, and is able to suppress chitin-induced plant immune responses, including generation of reactive oxygen species and plant defense gene expression. Furthermore, we show that Slp1 competes with CEBiP for binding of chitin oligosaccharides. Slp1 is required by M. oryzae for full virulence and exerts a significant effect on tissue invasion and disease lesion expansion. By contrast, gene silencing of CEBiP in rice allows M. oryzae to cause rice blast disease in the absence of Slp1. We propose that Slp1 sequesters chitin oligosaccharides to prevent PAMP-triggered immunity in rice, thereby facilitating rapid spread of the fungus within host tissue.
    The Plant Cell 02/2012; 24(1):322-35. DOI:10.1105/tpc.111.092957 · 9.58 Impact Factor