Dynamics of motor-related functional integration during motor sequence learning.

INSERM and UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR-S 678 Laboratoire d'Imagerie Fonctionnelle, CHU Pitié-Salpêtrière, 91 Boulevard de l'Hôpital, Paris, France.
NeuroImage (Impact Factor: 6.25). 09/2009; 49(1):759-66. DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2009.08.048
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Motor skill learning is associated with profound changes in brain activation patterns over time. Associative and rostral premotor cortical and subcortical regions are mostly recruited during the early phase of explicit motor learning, while sensorimotor regions may increase their activity during the late learning phases. Distinct brain networks are therefore engaged during the early and late phases of motor skill learning. How these regions interact with one another and how information is transferred from one circuit to the other has been less extensively studied. In this study, we used functional MRI (fMRI) at 3T to follow the changes in functional connectivity in the associative/premotor and the sensorimotor networks, during extended practice (4 weeks) of an explicitly known sequence of finger movements. Evolution of functional connectivity was assessed using integration, a measure that quantifies the total amount of interaction within a network. When comparing the integration associated with a complex finger movement sequence to that associated with a simple sequence, we observed two patterns of decrease during the 4 weeks of practice. One was not specific as it was observed for all sequences, whereas a specific decrease was observed only for the execution of the learned sequence. This second decrease was a consequence of a relative decrease in associative/premotor network integration, together with a relative increase in between-network integration. These findings are in line with the hypothesis that information is transferred from the associative/premotor circuit to the sensorimotor circuit during the course of motor learning.

1 Bookmark
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mirror movements are involuntary symmetrical movements of one side of the body that mirror voluntary movements of the other side. Congenital mirror movement disorder is a rare condition characterized by mirror movements that persist throughout adulthood in subjects with no other clinical abnormalities. The affected individuals have mirror movements predominating in the muscles that control the fingers and are unable to perform purely unimanual movements. Congenital mirror movement disorder thus provides a unique paradigm for studying the lateralization of motor control. We conducted a multimodal, controlled study of patients with congenital mirror movements associated with RAD51 haploinsufficiency (n = 7, mean age 33.3 ± 16.8 years) by comparison with age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers (n = 14, mean age 33.9 ± 16.1 years). We showed that patients with congenital mirror movements induced by RAD51 deficiency had: (i) an abnormal decussation of the corticospinal tract; (ii) abnormal interhemispheric inhibition and bilateral cortical activation of primary motor areas during intended unimanual movements; and (iii) an abnormal involvement of the supplementary motor area during both unimanual and bimanual movements. The lateralization of motor control thus requires a fine interplay between interhemispheric communication and corticospinal wiring. This fine interplay determines: (i) the delivery of appropriate motor plans from the supplementary motor area to the primary motor cortex; (ii) the lateralized activation of the primary motor cortex; and (iii) the unilateral transmission of the motor command to the limb involved in the intended movement. Our results also unveil an unexpected function of RAD51 in corticospinal development of the motor system.
    Brain 09/2013; · 10.23 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Physical activity has been shown to improve cognitive functioning. Research has largely focused on cognitive facilitation by cardiovascular exercise in older adults. Only few studies have investigated younger age groups or other types of physical activity. In this paper we review and summarize common results found in recent studies of metabolic (i.e. cardiovascular and resistance) and coordinative exercise. Findings from human motor learning are utilized to complement results on coordinative exercise. Results show that both types of exercise affect the brain differently. We propose possible mechanisms by which physical activity facilitates cognitive performance by briefly reviewing microscopic structural changes in animal research. Lastly, we highlight open research questions.
    Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 02/2013; · 10.28 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This project utilized functional MRI (fMRI) and a motor activation paradigm to investigate neural circuitry in euthymic bipolar II disorder. We hypothesized that circuitry involving the cortical midline structures (CMS) would demonstrate abnormal functional connectivity. Nineteen subjects with recurrent bipolar disorder and 18 controls were studied using fMRI and a motor activation paradigm. We used functional connectivity analyses to identify circuits with aberrant connectivity. We found increased functional connectivity among bipolar subjects compared to healthy controls in two CMS circuits. One circuit included the medial aspect of the left superior frontal gyrus and the dorsolateral region of the left superior frontal gyrus. The other included the medial aspect of the right superior frontal gyrus, the dorsolateral region of the left superior frontal gyrus and the right medial frontal gyrus and surrounding region. Our results indicate that CMS circuit dysfunction persists in the euthymic state and thus may represent trait pathology. Future studies should address whether these circuits contribute to relapse of illness. Our results also suggest the possibility that aberrations of superior frontal circuitry may impact default mode network and cognitive processes.
    Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 01/2014; · 3.55 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
Jun 3, 2014