[Is it correct to use neonatal intensive care units as operating rooms?].
ABSTRACT The neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) is used in many centres as operating room in order to avoid the co-morbidities that there produces the movement of critical patients. The motive of this work is to analyze the advantages and disadvantages of this type of surgical interventions.
Between January, 2004 and December, 2007 405 newborns were operated in the NICU. The most frequent surgical realized interventions were: deferred closing breastbone (172), placement of ECMO (42), ligation of patent ductus arteriosus (45), laparotomies for necrotising enterocolitis (27), repair of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (20), plicate of diaphragms (5) and closing of gastroschisis (4). We realize a retrospective study of a group of 40 patients operated by diaphragmatic hernia and necrotising enterocolitis in the UCIN (group A) and compare them with a group of patients operated in the operating room with the same pathology (group B). We study 22 variables preoperatory, intraoperatory and postoperatory. For the statistical analysis T-student and Chi-square was in use, being considered to be statistically significant p < 0.05.
The average ages of the patients to the intervention were 11.1 +/- 8 days being the predominant sex the masculine one (60 %). The age gestational and the average weight for the group A was 31.9 +/- 5.7 weeks and 1,735 +/- 123 grams being for the group B of 34 +/- 3.5 weeks and 2,037 +/- 728 grams respectively (p = N.S.). 89.3% of the patients of the group A was with intubation orotracheal before the surgery, being 57.2% for the group B. The needs of high frequency ventilation and vasoactives drugs were higher for the group A (p < 0.01) and the operative time was similar in both groups (81 +/- 34 vs. 98 +/- 33 minutes). We find a difference of corporal temperature pre-post surgery of 0.60 +/- 0.48 degrees C for the group A and 2.18 +/- 0.93 degrees C in the B (p < 0.01). We don't estimate differences as for episodes of infection of wound, intraabdominal infection or need of reintervention. The survival of the patients was discreetly higher for the group operated in the operating room (82.3%) with regard to the group operated in the NICU (60%) without statistically significant differences existed.
In our experience the NICU is a suitable place to realize surgical interventions in critical patients. The higher mortality for the group controlled in the UCIN explains for a major instability preoperatory. The maintenance of the corporal temperature avoiding the hypothermia it's one of the decisive factors to diminish the morbi-mortality.