The prevalence of germ-line TP53 mutations in women diagnosed with breast cancer before age 30.
ABSTRACT Germ-line mutations in the TP53 gene are rare, but predispose women to a range of cancer types, including early-onset breast cancer. Breast cancers in women from families with the Li-Fraumeni syndrome often occur before age 30. The prevalence of deleterious TP53 mutations in unselected women with early-onset breast cancer is not precisely known. If mutations were found to be sufficiently common, it might be prudent to offer genetic testing to affected women in this age group. We screened the entire TP53 gene in the germ-line DNA from 95 women of various ethnic groups who were diagnosed with breast cancer before age 30, and who had previously been found to be negative for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. No TP53 mutation was found. This study does not support a policy that TP53 testing should be offered routinely to unselected women with early-onset breast cancer in the absence of a family history of cancer.
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ABSTRACT: The entire coding sequence of the p53 gene was analysed for the presence of mutations in 12 families conforming to a restricted definition of Li-Fraumeni syndrome (classic LFS) and nine families with features of LFS conforming to a broader definition. Mutations were detected in seven families. Six were point mutations with one each affecting codons 175, 180, and 220 and three affecting codon 248. The seventh was a deletion/insertion mutation in exon 4. Germline mutations in p53 were a feature of families which included children with rhabdomyosarcoma and/or adrenal cortical carcinoma. Germline p53 mutations were detected in six of the nine families with such tumors. An analysis of these 7 mutations, together with 34 published examples, showed that more than one-half were transitions at CpG dinucleotides, suggesting that the majority of germline p53 mutations may arise as a result of spontaneous events. The most common cancers occurring in the 41 families with germline p53 mutations, in common with classic LFS, were bone and soft tissue sarcoma, breast cancer, brain tumors, leukemia, and adrenocortical carcinoma, although less than one-half of the probands with germline p53 mutations came from classic LFS families. More than one-half of the cancers overall and nearly one-third of the breast cancers were diagnosed before 30 years of age. These observations have important implications for asymptomatic carriers of germline p53 mutations, and there is a need for international collaboration in the development of protocols for the management of such families.Cancer Research 04/1994; 54(5):1298-304. · 8.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Temperature-sensitive (ts) mutations have been used as a genetic and molecular tool to study the functions of many gene products. Each ts mutant protein may contain a temperature-dependent intramolecular mechanism such as ts conformational change. To identify key ts structural elements controlling the protein function, we screened ts p53 mutants from a comprehensive mutation library consisting of 2,314 p53 missense mutations for their sequence-specific transactivity through p53-binding sequences in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We isolated 142 ts p53 mutants, including 131 unreported ts mutants. These mutants clustered in beta-strands in the DNA-binding domain, particularly in one of the two beta-sheets of the protein, and 15 residues (Thr155, Arg158, Met160, Ala161, Val172, His214, Ser215, Pro223, Thr231, Thr253, Ile254, Thr256, Ser269, Glu271, and Glu285) were ts hot spots. Among the 142 mutants, 54 were examined further in human osteosarcoma Saos-2 cells, and it was confirmed that 89% of the mutants were also ts in mammalian cells. The ts mutants represented distinct ts transactivities for the p53 binding sequences and a distinct epitope expression pattern for conformation-specific anti-p53 antibodies. These results indicated that the intramolecular beta-sheet in the core DNA-binding domain of p53 was a key structural element controlling the protein function and provided a clue for finding a molecular mechanism that enables the rescue of the mutant p53 function.Journal of Biological Chemistry 02/2004; 279(1):348-55. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Numerous disease-associated point mutations exert their effects by disrupting the activity of exonic splicing enhancers (ESEs). We previously derived position weight matrices to predict putative ESEs specific for four human SR proteins. The score matrices are part of ESEfinder, an online resource to identify ESEs in query sequences. We have now carried out a refined functional SELEX screen for motifs that can act as ESEs in response to the human SR protein SF2/ASF. The test BRCA1 exon under selection was internal, rather than the 3'-terminal IGHM exon used in our earlier studies. A naturally occurring heptameric ESE in BRCA1 exon 18 was replaced with two libraries of random sequences, one seven nucleotides in length, the other 14. Following three rounds of selection for in vitro splicing via internal exon inclusion, new consensus motifs and score matrices were derived. Many winner sequences were demonstrated to be functional ESEs in S100-extract-complementation assays with recombinant SF2/ASF. Motif-score threshold values were derived from both experimental and statistical analyses. Motif scores were shown to correlate with levels of exon inclusion, both in vitro and in vivo. Our results confirm and extend our earlier data, as many of the same motifs are recognized as ESEs by both the original and our new score matrix, despite the different context used for selection. Finally, we have derived an increased specificity score matrix that incorporates information from both of our SF2/ASF-specific matrices and that accurately predicts the exon-skipping phenotypes of deleterious point mutations.Human Molecular Genetics 09/2006; 15(16):2490-508. · 7.69 Impact Factor