Vascular-directed tissue factor pathway inhibitor overexpression regulates plasma cholesterol and reduces atherosclerotic plaque development.
ABSTRACT Tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) is a potent regulator of the tissue factor pathway and is found in plasma in association with lipoproteins.
To determine the role of TFPI in the development of atherosclerosis, we bred mice which overexpress TFPI into the apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoE(-/-)) background.
On a high-fat diet, smooth muscle 22alpha (SM22alpha)-TFPI/apoE(-/-) mice were shown to have less aortic plaque burden compared to apoE(-/-) mice. Unexpectedly, SM22alpha-TFPI/apoE(-/-) had lower plasma cholesterol levels compared to apoE(-/-) mice. Furthermore, SM22alpha-TFPI mice fed a high-fat diet had lower cholesterol levels than did wild-type mice. Because TFPI is associated with lipoproteins and its carboxyl terminus (TFPIct) has been shown to be a ligand for the very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) receptor, we hypothesized that TFPI overexpression may regulate lipoprotein distribution. We quantified VLDL binding and uptake in vitro in mouse aortic smooth muscle cells from SM22alpha-TFPI and wild-type mice. Mouse aortic smooth muscle cells from SM22alpha-TFPI mice demonstrated higher VLDL binding and internalization compared to those from wild-type mice. Because SM22alpha-TFPI mice have increased circulating levels of TFPI antigen, we examined whether TFPIct may act to alter lipoprotein distribution. In vitro, TFPIct increased VLDL binding, uptake, and degradation in murine embryonic fibroblasts. Furthermore, this effect was blocked by heparinase treatment. In vivo, systemic administration of TFPIct reduced plasma cholesterol levels in apoE(-/-) mice.
These studies suggest that overexpression of TFPI lowers plasma cholesterol through the interaction of its carboxyl terminus with lipoproteins and heparan sulfate proteoglycans.
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ABSTRACT: SM22 alpha is expressed exclusively in smooth muscle-containing tissues of adult animals and is one of the earliest markers of differentiated smooth muscle cells (SMCs). To examine the molecular mechanisms that regulate SMC-specific gene expression, we have isolated and structurally characterized the murine SM22 alpha gene. SM22 alpha is a 6.2-kilobase single copy gene composed of five exons. SM22 alpha mRNA is expressed at high levels in the aorta, uterus, lung, and intestine, and in primary cultures of rat aortic SMCs, and the SMC line, A7r5. In contrast to genes encoding SMC contractile proteins, SM22 alpha gene expression is not decreased in proliferating SMCs. Transient transfection experiments demonstrated that 441 base pairs of SM22 alpha 5'-flanking sequence was necessary and sufficient to program high level transcription of a luciferase reporter gene in both primary rat aortic SMCs and A7r5 cells. DNA sequence analyses revealed that the 441-base pair promoter contains two CArG/SRF boxes, a CACC box, and one potential MEF-2 binding site, cis-acting elements which are each important regulators of striated muscle transcription. Taken together, these studies have identified the murine SM22 alpha promoter as an excellent model system for studies of developmentally regulated, lineage-specific gene expression in SMCs.Journal of Biological Chemistry 07/1995; 270(22):13460-9. · 4.77 Impact Factor
Article: Down-regulation of monocyte tissue factor mediated by tissue factor pathway inhibitor and the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Inflammatory mediators like bacterial lipopolysaccharide induce monocytes to express tissue factor (TF), the cell-surface protein that triggers the blood clotting cascade in hemostasis and thrombotic disease. The physiologic ligand for TF is the serine protease, factor VIIa (FVIIa), and the resulting bimolecular enzyme, TF/FVIIa, can be reversibly inhibited by tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI). Culturing monocytic cells in the presence of both FVIIa and TFPI caused down-regulation of TF expression via reducing its half-life. To exert this effect, FVIIa had to be competent to bind both TF and TFPI, and TFPI had to contain the C-terminal domain required for binding to other cell-surface receptors, including the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP). TF down-regulation by FVIIa plus TFPI was abrogated by the 39-kDa receptor-associated protein, which blocks binding of all known ligands to LRP. Furthermore, treatment with FVIIa plus TFPI caused monocyte TF to colocalize with alpha-adaptin, a component of clathrin-coated pits. Thus, in addition to reversibly inhibiting TF/FVIIa catalytic activity, TFPI also mediates the permanent down-regulation of cell-surface TF in monocytic cells via LRP-dependent internalization and degradation. This represents an unusual mechanism for receptor internalization, requiring ligand-dependent bridging of one cell-surface receptor (TF) to a second cell-surface receptor (LRP), the latter being capable of clathrin-mediated internalization.Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/1999; 274(8):4962-9. · 4.77 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Tissue factor (TF) is a low-molecular-weight glycoprotein that initiates the extrinsic clotting cascade and is considered a major regulator of arterial thrombogenicity. TF pathway inhibitor (TFPI) is a major physiological inhibitor of TF-initiated coagulation. The aim of this study was to define the complex interplay between TF and TFPI and the regulation of vascular thrombogenicity in a model of vascular remodeling. To determine the levels and pattern of vascular expression of TF and TFPI associated with vascular remodeling, a murine model of flow cessation was studied. TF activity of the arteries increased after ligation (P<0.05). Quantitative analysis of homogenates of remodeled carotid arteries revealed increased TF expression but unchanged TFPI expression compared with normal carotid arteries, resulting in enhanced TF activity. To determine the potential therapeutic role of TFPI in this thrombogenic state, mice were treated with intravascular adenoviral delivery of either murine TFPI (Ad-mTFPImyc) or a control adenovirus (Ad-DeltaE1). Overexpression of TFPI decreased vascular TF activity compared with viral control (P<0.01). Overexpression of TFPI inhibited neointimal formation (P=0.038), resulting in enhanced luminal area (P=0.001) 4 weeks after flow cessation. In this murine model of vascular remodeling, an imbalance between TF and TFPI expression is generated, resulting in increased TF activity. Overexpression of TFPI in this model inhibits vascular TF activity and results in attenuation of vascular remodeling associated with flow interruption.Circulation Research 08/2001; 89(1):71-6. · 9.49 Impact Factor