Last Word on Point:Counterpoint: Exercise-induced intrapulmonary shunting is imaginary vs. real.

Dept. of Human Physiology, 1240 Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403-1240. ).
Journal of Applied Physiology (Impact Factor: 3.43). 10/2009; 107(3):1003. DOI: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00693.2009
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: As the first step in the oxygen-transport chain, the lung has a critical task: optimizing the exchange of respiratory gases to maintain delivery of oxygen and the elimination of carbon dioxide. In healthy subjects, gas exchange, as evaluated by the alveolar-to-arterial PO2 difference (A-aDO2), worsens with incremental exercise, and typically reaches an A-aDO2 of approximately 25 mmHg at peak exercise. While there is great individual variability, A-aDO2 is generally largest at peak exercise in subjects with the highest peak oxygen consumption. Inert gas data has shown that the increase in A-aDO2 is explained by decreased ventilation-perfusion matching, and the development of a diffusion limitation for oxygen. Gas exchange data does not indicate the presence of right-to-left intrapulmonary shunt developing with exercise, despite recent data suggesting that large-diameter arteriovenous shunt vessels may be recruited with exercise. At the same time, multisystem mechanisms regulate systemic acid-base balance in integrative processes that involve gas exchange between tissues and the environment and simultaneous net changes in the concentrations of strong and weak ions within, and transfer between, extracellular and intracellular fluids. The physicochemical approach to acid-base balance is used to understand the contributions from independent acid-base variables to measured acid-base disturbances within contracting skeletal muscle, erythrocytes and noncontracting tissues. In muscle, the magnitude of the disturbance is proportional to the concentrations of dissociated weak acids, the rate at which acid equivalents (strong acid) accumulate and the rate at which strong base cations are added to or removed from muscle. © 2013 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 3:693-739, 2013.
    04/2013; 3(2):693-739. DOI:10.1002/cphy.c110048
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    ABSTRACT: The development of intrapulmonary shunts with increased cardiac output during exercise in healthy humans has been reported in several recent studies, but mechanisms governing their recruitment remain unclear. Dobutamine and dopamine are inotropes commonly used to augment cardiac output; however, both can increase venous admixture/shunt fraction (Qs/Qt). It is possible that, as with exercise, intrapulmonary shunts are recruited with increased cardiac output during dobutamine and/or dopamine infusion that may contribute to the observed increase in Qs/Qt. The purpose of this study was to examine how dobutamine and dopamine affect intrapulmonary shunt and gas exchange. Nine resting healthy subjects received serial infusions of dobutamine and dopamine at incremental doses under normoxic and hyperoxic (inspired O(2) fraction = 1.0) conditions. At each step, alveolar-to-arterial Po(2) difference (A-aDo(2)) and Qs/Qt were calculated from arterial blood gas samples, intrapulmonary shunt was evaluated using contrast echocardiography, and cardiac output was calculated by Doppler echocardiography. Both dobutamine and dopamine increased cardiac output and Qs/Qt. Intrapulmonary shunt developed in most subjects with both drugs and paralleled the increase in Qs/Qt. A-aDo(2) was unchanged due to a concurrent rise in mixed venous oxygen content. Hyperoxia consistently eliminated intrapulmonary shunt. These findings contribute to our present understanding of the mechanisms governing recruitment of these intrapulmonary shunts as well as their impact on gas exchange. In addition, given the deleterious effect on Qs/Qt and the risk of neurological complications with intrapulmonary shunts, these findings could have important implications for use of dobutamine and dopamine in the clinical setting.
    Journal of Applied Physiology 06/2012; 113(4):541-8. DOI:10.1152/japplphysiol.00404.2012 · 3.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Embolic insults account for a significant number of neurologic sequelae following many routine surgical procedures. Clearly, these post-intervention embolic events are a serious public health issue as they are potentially life altering. However, the pathway these emboli utilize to bypass the pulmonary microcirculatory sieve in patients without an intracardiac shunt such as an atrial septal defect or patent foramen ovale, remains unclear. In the absence of intracardiac routes and large diameter pulmonary arteriovenous malformations, inducible large diameter intrapulmonary arteriovenous anastomoses in otherwise healthy adult humans may prove to be the best explanation. Our group and others have demonstrated that inducible large diameter intrapulmonary arteriovenous anastomoses are closed at rest but can open during hyperdynamic conditions such as exercise in more than 90% of healthy humans. Furthermore, the patency of these intrapulmonary anastomoses can be modulated through the fraction of inspired oxygen and by body positioning. Of particular clinical interest, there appears to be a strong association between arterial hypoxemia and neurologic insults, suggesting a breach in the filtering ability of the pulmonary microvasculature under these conditions. In this review, we present evidence demonstrating the existence of inducible intrapulmonary arteriovenous anastomoses in healthy humans that are modulated by exercise, oxygen tension and body positioning. Additionally, we identify several clinical conditions associated with both arterial hypoxemia and an increased risk for embolic insults. Finally, we suggest some precautionary measures that should be taken during interventions to keep intrapulmonary arteriovenous anastomoses closed in order to prevent or reduce the incidence of paradoxical embolism.
    Injury 11/2010; 41 Suppl 2:S16-23. DOI:10.1016/S0020-1383(10)70004-8 · 2.46 Impact Factor


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