Last Word on Point:Counterpoint: Exercise-induced intrapulmonary shunting is imaginary vs. real.

Dept. of Human Physiology, 1240 Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403-1240. ).
Journal of Applied Physiology (Impact Factor: 3.43). 10/2009; 107(3):1003. DOI: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00693.2009
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: As the first step in the oxygen-transport chain, the lung has a critical task: optimizing the exchange of respiratory gases to maintain delivery of oxygen and the elimination of carbon dioxide. In healthy subjects, gas exchange, as evaluated by the alveolar-to-arterial PO2 difference (A-aDO2), worsens with incremental exercise, and typically reaches an A-aDO2 of approximately 25 mmHg at peak exercise. While there is great individual variability, A-aDO2 is generally largest at peak exercise in subjects with the highest peak oxygen consumption. Inert gas data has shown that the increase in A-aDO2 is explained by decreased ventilation-perfusion matching, and the development of a diffusion limitation for oxygen. Gas exchange data does not indicate the presence of right-to-left intrapulmonary shunt developing with exercise, despite recent data suggesting that large-diameter arteriovenous shunt vessels may be recruited with exercise. At the same time, multisystem mechanisms regulate systemic acid-base balance in integrative processes that involve gas exchange between tissues and the environment and simultaneous net changes in the concentrations of strong and weak ions within, and transfer between, extracellular and intracellular fluids. The physicochemical approach to acid-base balance is used to understand the contributions from independent acid-base variables to measured acid-base disturbances within contracting skeletal muscle, erythrocytes and noncontracting tissues. In muscle, the magnitude of the disturbance is proportional to the concentrations of dissociated weak acids, the rate at which acid equivalents (strong acid) accumulate and the rate at which strong base cations are added to or removed from muscle. © 2013 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 3:693-739, 2013.
    04/2013; 3(2):693-739. DOI:10.1002/cphy.c110048
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    ABSTRACT: Intrapulmonary arteriovenous anastomoses (IPAVA) are large diameter (>50 μm) vascular conduits, present in >95% of healthy humans. Because IPAVA are large diameter pathways that allow blood flow to bypass the pulmonary capillary network, blood flow through IPAVA (QIPAVA ) can permit the transpulmonary passage of particles larger than pulmonary capillaries. IPAVA have been known to exist for over 50 years, but their physiological and clinical significance are still being established; although, currently suggested roles for QIPAVA include allowing emboli to reach the systemic circulation and providing a source of shunt. Studying QIPAVA is an important area of research and as the suggested roles become better established, detecting and quantifying QIPAVA may become significantly more important in the clinic. Several techniques that can be used to quantify and/or detect QIPAVA in animals, ex vivo human/animal lungs, and intact healthy humans; microspheres, radiolabeled macroaggregated albumin particles, and saline contrast echocardiography, are reviewed with limitations and advantages to each. The current body of literature using these techniques to study QIPAVA in animals, ex vivo lungs, and healthy humans has established conditions when QIPAVA is present, such as during exercise or with arterial hypoxemia and conditions when QIPAVA is absent, such as at rest or during exercise breathing 100% O2 . Many of these physiological studies have direct application to patient populations and we discuss each of these findings in the context of their potential to influence the clinical utility, and interpretation, of the results from these techniques highlighted in this review. © 2015, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Echocardiography 02/2015; 32 Suppl 3:S195-204. DOI:10.1111/echo.12839 · 1.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The development of intrapulmonary shunts with increased cardiac output during exercise in healthy humans has been reported in several recent studies, but mechanisms governing their recruitment remain unclear. Dobutamine and dopamine are inotropes commonly used to augment cardiac output; however, both can increase venous admixture/shunt fraction (Qs/Qt). It is possible that, as with exercise, intrapulmonary shunts are recruited with increased cardiac output during dobutamine and/or dopamine infusion that may contribute to the observed increase in Qs/Qt. The purpose of this study was to examine how dobutamine and dopamine affect intrapulmonary shunt and gas exchange. Nine resting healthy subjects received serial infusions of dobutamine and dopamine at incremental doses under normoxic and hyperoxic (inspired O(2) fraction = 1.0) conditions. At each step, alveolar-to-arterial Po(2) difference (A-aDo(2)) and Qs/Qt were calculated from arterial blood gas samples, intrapulmonary shunt was evaluated using contrast echocardiography, and cardiac output was calculated by Doppler echocardiography. Both dobutamine and dopamine increased cardiac output and Qs/Qt. Intrapulmonary shunt developed in most subjects with both drugs and paralleled the increase in Qs/Qt. A-aDo(2) was unchanged due to a concurrent rise in mixed venous oxygen content. Hyperoxia consistently eliminated intrapulmonary shunt. These findings contribute to our present understanding of the mechanisms governing recruitment of these intrapulmonary shunts as well as their impact on gas exchange. In addition, given the deleterious effect on Qs/Qt and the risk of neurological complications with intrapulmonary shunts, these findings could have important implications for use of dobutamine and dopamine in the clinical setting.
    Journal of Applied Physiology 06/2012; 113(4):541-8. DOI:10.1152/japplphysiol.00404.2012 · 3.43 Impact Factor


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