Economic Burden of Follicular Non-Hodgkinʼs Lymphoma
ABSTRACT Follicular non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (FNHL), a slow-growing cancer of the immune system, constitutes about 15-30% of all incident non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in developed countries. Its incidence is rising worldwide. Patients can live many years, but FNHL is considered incurable. We systematically reviewed the English-language MEDLINE-indexed and non-indexed economic literature published in the past 10 years on FNHL, identifying 23 primary economic studies. The economic burden of FNHL is significant, but available data are generally limited to retrospective considerations of hospital-based direct treatment costs, with little information available regarding societal cost of illness. Most direct cost information originates from the US, with one estimate of $US36 000 for the per-patient incremental cost of FNHL care during the first year following diagnosis. The most studied treatment is rituximab, which may offer similar overall costs to fludarabine considering higher resource use with fludarabine complications. Nearly all cost-effectiveness models identified by this review evaluated rituximab for relapsed/refractory FNHL responding to chemotherapy induction. Rituximab is supported as a cost-effective addition to standard chemotherapy by two models in the UK and one in the US, as maintenance therapy instead of stem-cell transplant by one UK model, and as maintenance therapy instead of observation alone by one model each in France, Spain and Canada. The UK National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence updated guidance on rituximab in February 2008, concluding that it is cost effective when added to induction chemotherapy, and when used as maintenance therapy. No studies of per-patient or national indirect costs of illness were identified, with the only study of indirect costs a Canadian survey documenting lost work productivity. Across all study types identified by our review, the most common focus was on the direct costs of rituximab. As new treatments for FNHL come to market, more real-life cost data are imperative to calculate their relative cost effectiveness.
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ABSTRACT: Rituximab (MabThera, Rituxan) is a chimeric mouse anti-human CD20 monoclonal antibody. This article reviews the use of intravenous rituximab in the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), low-grade or follicular lymphoma, and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. The addition of rituximab to fludarabine plus cyclophosphamide significantly prolonged progression-free survival both in previously untreated patients with CLL and in those with relapsed or refractory CLL, according to the results of two randomized, open-label, multicentre trials. In patients with previously untreated advanced follicular lymphoma, the addition of rituximab to chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone [CHOP], cyclophosphamide, vincristine and prednisone [CVP], mitoxantrone, chlorambucil and prednisolone, or cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, etoposide and prednisolone) was generally associated with better outcomes than chemotherapy alone in randomized, multicentre trials. In a similarly designed trial, progression-free survival was significantly longer in previously untreated patients with follicular lymphoma, other indolent lymphomas or mantle-cell lymphoma who received rituximab plus bendamustine than in those receiving rituximab plus CHOP. Monotherapy with rituximab also demonstrated efficacy in patients with relapsed or refractory low-grade or follicular lymphoma, according to the results of noncomparative trials. In terms of maintenance therapy, progression-free survival was significantly prolonged with rituximab maintenance therapy versus observation alone in patients with advanced indolent lymphoma who had not progressed following first-line therapy with CVP and in patients with relapsed or refractory follicular lymphoma who had responded to CHOP (with or without rituximab), according to the results of randomized, open-label, multicentre trials. In four randomized, open-label, multicentre trials in younger or elderly patients with previously untreated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, event-free survival, failure-free survival, progression-free survival and overall survival were generally improved to a significant extent by the addition of rituximab to CHOP or CHOP-like chemotherapy. Intravenous rituximab was generally well tolerated in patients with CLL, low-grade or follicular lymphoma, or diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, both as monotherapy and when administered in combination with chemotherapy. Infusion reactions were one of the most commonly occurring adverse events in patients receiving intravenous rituximab. The results of pharmacoeconomic modelling analyses demonstrated that rituximab appears to be cost effective in patients with previously untreated follicular lymphoma, in patients with follicular lymphoma receiving rituximab maintenance therapy following treatment for relapsed or refractory disease and in patients with previously untreated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. In conclusion, rituximab remains a valuable therapy in patients with CLL, low-grade or follicular lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and, in a variety of treatment settings, represents the standard of care.Drugs 07/2010; 70(11):1445-76. DOI:10.2165/11201110-000000000-00000 · 4.13 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Rituximab induction together with CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone) and rituximab maintenance (RCHOP-R) resulted to significant progression-free survival (PFS) benefit in comparison to RCHOP in the EORTC20981 trial of relapsed/refractory follicular non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (FL). However, the overall survival (OS) difference between RCHOP-R and RCHOP was insignificant. This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of RCHOP, RCHOP-R, and CHOP in the treatment of relapsed/refractory FL. Design: A lifetime Markov modeling based on the 5-year EORTC20981 survivals (Weibull regressions) was carried out from the public health care payer perspective. Finnish costs (drug, routine, adverse event, and relapse management) were employed. The main outcomes were incremental cost (€2008) per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY), progression-free year (PFY), and life-years gained (LYG). Analyses included cost-effectiveness acceptability frontier and multinomial expected value of perfect information (mEVPI). RCHOP-R resulted to OS (PFS) benefit compared with RCHOP and CHOP: 6 (10) and 17 (25) months, respectively. The incremental costs per QALY gained/LYG/PFY gained were €18 147/€16 380/€10 416 for RCHOP-R versus RCHOP (mEVPI €5196); €14 360/€13 041/€8976 for RCHOP-R versus CHOP (mEVPI €1986); and €12 123/€11 049/€8004 for RCHOP versus CHOP (mEVPI €1,240). RCHOP-R was the optimal option when the willingness to pay per QALY gained exceeded €18 399. RCHOP-R is a potentially cost-effective treatment option for the FL.Annals of Oncology 12/2010; 22(5):1189-97. DOI:10.1093/annonc/mdq582 · 6.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Rituximab maintenance (RM) therapy following successful induction has recently emerged as a highly effective treatment for follicular lymphoma (FL). Randomized trials analyzing the impact of RM compared to observation alone have demonstrated a significantly better outcome in terms of progression-free survival (but not overall survival) in patients (pts) who received as first-line treatment single-agent rituximab, standard chemotherapy (CVP) and recently also immunochemotherapy (R-CHOP, R-CVP or R-FND), as shown by preliminary results of the PRIMA trial. Also in the setting of relapsed disease, RM has shown significant benefit either after chemotherapy or immunochemotherapy. RM has been generally well tolerated, and treated pts developed only mild toxicity, mainly a small increased rate of neutropenia, hypogammaglobulinaemia and self-limiting upper-respiratory tract infections. Moreover, no cumulative or unexpected toxicities were observed and quality of life was not affected. These data have established RM therapy as an important part of multi-modal therapeutic strategies in patients affected by FL.07/2011; 2(7):281-8. DOI:10.5306/wjco.v2.i7.281