[Anesthesia with transfemoral and transapical aortic valve implantation. Periinterventional management and hemodynamic observations].
ABSTRACT Percutaneous transfemoral and transapical aortic valve implantations are novel procedures that often confront the anesthesiologist with bigger challenges than surgical aortic valve replacements using cardiopulmonary bypass. Due to old age and the presence of severe comorbidities including pulmonary vascular hypertension, most patients have a very high risk. Individual comorbidities and their severity are as important for the choice of the anesthetic technique as pharmacological cardiovascular therapy and communication during the respective phases of the intervention. Since severe hemodynamic alterations (cardiogenic shock, coronary ischemia, arrhythmias) and potential interventional complications (bleeding, ventricular and vascular injury) may occur, the authors routinely perform an extended cardiovascular monitoring. General endotracheal anesthesia may be advantageous even for transfemoral valve implantation and was not associated with a worse outcome. Following valve implantation a substantial increase in cardiac index, but also of all filling pressures was measured. Anesthesia coverage time for the first 100 cases averaged 263 min (+/- 96) for transfemoral and 297 (+/- 78) for transapical valve implantation, which appears greater than for conventional aortic valve replacement surgery, but it decreased significantly for transfemoral valve implantation over the course of interventions. Accordingly, the anesthesiologist, besides providing anesthesia and managing the airway, assumes responsibility for invasive cardiopulmonary monitoring, cardiovascular pharmacotherapy tailored to intervention phases, and "troubleshooting" in the event of complications for these still developing interventions.
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ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of transient aortic valve occlusion (balloon valvuloplasty) on vasoactive hormones in patients with heart failure. Plasma atrial natriuretic peptide, vasopressin, aldosterone, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and plasma renin activity were measured before, immediately after, and 30 minutes and 18 to 24 hours following balloon inflation in 18 patients. Mean right atrial and pulmonary wedge pressures were 6 and 18 mm Hg before inflations, respectively, and were unchanged after balloon inflations (5 and 13 mm Hg, respectively). Systemic systolic/diastolic pressures were 139 +/- 8/65 +/- 4 mm Hg before occlusion, decreased to 47 +/- 5/34 +/- 3 mm Hg during occlusion, and returned to baseline after occlusions. Baseline atrial natriuretic peptide levels were 267 +/- 43 pg/ml and increased to 513 +/- 71 pg/ml after balloon inflations. Vasopressin levels before occlusion were 9.1 +/- 2.2 pg/ml and increased to 21.4 +/- 4.8 pg/ml after balloon inflations. Plasma renin activity was 5.4 +/- 1.4 ng/ml/hr before inflations and was not significantly changed after balloon inflations. No clinically significant changes in plasma sodium, potassium, creatinine, and osmolality were observed after the procedure. Aldosterone increased from 23 +/- 4 to 40 +/- 7 ng/dl 10 minutes after the last inflation. Plasma ACTH measured in seven patients with increased aldosterone was 28 +/- 8 pg/ml before and increased to 295 +/- 157 pg/ml 10 minutes after balloon inflations. The increases in natriuretic peptide and vasopressin were likely due to elevated intracardiac and decreased arterial pressures, respectively; they persisted in spite of no clinically significant changes in filling pressures 12 to 24 hours after the procedure.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)American Heart Journal 09/1989; 118(2):292-8. · 4.50 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Percutaneous aortic valve replacement represents an endovascular alternative to conventional open heart surgery without the need for sternotomy, aortotomy, or cardiopulmonary bypass. Transcatheter implantation of a balloon-expandable stent valve using a femoral arterial approach was attempted in 50 symptomatic patients with severe aortic stenosis in whom there was a consensus that the risks of conventional open heart surgery were very high. Valve implantation was successful in 86% of patients. Intraprocedural mortality was 2%. Discharge home occurred at a median of 5 days (interquartile range, 4 to 13). Mortality at 30 days was 12% in patients in whom the logistic European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation risk score was 28%. With experience, procedural success increased from 76% in the first 25 patients to 96% in the second 25 (P=0.10), and 30-day mortality fell from 16% to 8% (P=0.67). Successful valve replacement was associated with an increase in echocardiographic valve area from 0.6+/-0.2 to 1.7+/-0.4 cm2. Mild paravalvular regurgitation was common but was well tolerated. After valve insertion, there was a significant improvement in left ventricular ejection fraction (P<0.0001), mitral regurgitation (P=0.01), and functional class (P<0.0001). Improvement was maintained at 1 year. Structural valve deterioration was not observed with a median follow-up of 359 days. Percutaneous valve replacement may be an alternative to conventional open heart surgery in selected high-risk patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis.Circulation 09/2007; 116(7):755-63. · 15.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study sought to determine the long-term outcome of adult patients undergoing percutaneous balloon aortic valvuloplasty. Percutaneous balloon aortic valvuloplasty has been offered as an alternative to aortic valve replacement for selected patients with valvular aortic stenosis. Although balloon aortic valvuloplasty produces an immediate reduction in the transvalvular aortic gradient, a high incidence of restenosis frequently leads to recurrent symptoms. Therefore, it is unclear whether balloon aortic valvuloplasty impacts on the long-term outcome of these patients. Clinical, hemodynamic and echocardiographic data were collected at baseline in 165 patients undergoing balloon aortic valvuloplasty and examined for their ability to predict long-term outcome. The median duration follow-up was 3.9 years (range 1 to 6). Ninety-nine percent follow-up was achieved. During this 6-year period, 152 patients (93%) died or underwent aortic valve replacement, and 99 (60%) died of cardiac-related causes. The probability of event-free survival (freedom from death, aortic valve replacement or repeat balloon aortic valvuloplasty) 1, 2 and 3 years after valvuloplasty was 40%, 19% and 6%, respectively. In contrast, the probability of survival 3 years after balloon aortic valvuloplasty in a subset of 42 patients who underwent subsequent aortic valve replacement was 84%. Survival after aortic valvuloplasty was poor regardless of the presenting symptom, but patients with New York Heart Association functional class IV congestive heart failure had events earliest. Univariable predictors of decreased event-free survival were younger age, advanced congestive heart failure symptoms, lower ejection fraction, elevated left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, presence of coronary artery disease and increased left ventricular internal diastolic diameter. Stepwise multivariable logistic regression analysis found that only younger age and a lower left ventricular ejection fraction contributed independent adverse prognostic information (chi-square 14.89, p = 0.0006). Long-term event-free and actuarial survival after balloon aortic valvuloplasty is dismal and resembles the natural history of untreated aortic stenosis. Aortic valve replacement may be performed in selected subjects with good results. However, the prognosis for the remainder of patients who are not candidates for aortic valve replacement is particularly poor.Journal of the American College of Cardiology 12/1995; 26(6):1522-8. · 14.09 Impact Factor