The effects of parental depression and parenting practices on depressive symptoms and metabolic control in urban youth with insulin dependent diabetes.

Judge Baker Children's Center, Harvard Medical School, 53 Parker Hill Avenue, Boston, MA 02120-3225, USA.
Journal of Pediatric Psychology (Impact Factor: 2.91). 09/2009; 35(4):426-35. DOI: 10.1093/jpepsy/jsp068
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Examine relationships between parental depressive symptoms, affective and instrumental parenting practices, youth depressive symptoms and glycemic control in a diverse, urban sample of adolescents with diabetes.
Sixty-one parents and youth aged 10-17 completed self-report questionnaires. HbA1c assays were obtained to assess metabolic control. Path analysis was used to test a model where parenting variables mediated the relationship between parental and youth depressive symptoms and had effects on metabolic control.
Parental depressive symptoms had a significant indirect effect on youth depressive symptoms through parental involvement. Youth depressive symptoms were significantly related to metabolic control. While instrumental aspects of parenting such as monitoring or discipline were unrelated to youth depressive symptoms, parental depression had a significant indirect effect on metabolic control through parental monitoring.
The presence of parental depressive symptoms influences both youth depression and poor metabolic control through problematic parenting practices such as low involvement and monitoring.


Available from: Karen (Kolmodin) MacDonell, Feb 05, 2014
  • Source
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Alabama Parenting Questionnaire (APQ) is a well-validated instrument designed to assess parenting behaviors that may be associated with child conduct problems. The APQ’s original five factors were theoretically derived, encompassing positive parenting, corporal punishment, inconsistent discipline, parental involvement, and poor monitoring/supervision. To date several studies have used data-driven approaches in order to ascertain the factor structure of the child and parent report versions of the APQ, with three-, four-, and five-factor models proposed. The current study investigated the psychometric properties of the child report version of the APQ in a sample of 358 adolescents aged 11-18. Results of two separate factor analyses suggest four-factor solutions for mothers and fathers, though the factor titles and item content of these four factors differed between mothers and fathers. Follow-up individual item analyses reveal several strong correlations with child age, indicating that some APQ items may be inappropriate for an older adolescent sample. Implications of the differences in factor structures for mothers and fathers as well as strong age correlations are discussed.
    Journal of Child and Family Studies 01/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10826-015-0119-5 · 1.42 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study examined parental factors associated with outcomes of youth in the Treatment Options for type 2 Diabetes in Adolescents and Youth (TODAY) clinical trial. Of 699 youth with type 2 diabetes in the TODAY cohort, 623 (89.1%) had a parent participate and provide data at baseline, including weight, HbA1c, blood pressure, symptoms of depression, binge eating (BE), and medical history. Youth were followed up 2-6.5 years. Data were analyzed using regression models and survival curve methods. Parental diabetes (43.6% of parents) was associated with higher baseline HbA1c (P < 0.0001) and failure of youths to maintain glycemic control on study treatment (53.6% vs. 38.2% failure rate among those without a diabetic parent, P = 0.0002). Parental hypertension (40.6% of parents) was associated with hypertension in youth during TODAY (40.4% vs. 27.4% of youth with and without parental hypertension had hypertension, P = 0.0008) and with higher youth baseline BMI z scores (P = 0.0038). Parents had a mean baseline BMI of 33.6 kg/m(2). Parental obesity (BMI >30 kg/m(2)) was associated with higher baseline BMI z scores in the youth (P < 0.0001). Depressive symptoms in parents (20.6% of parents) were related to youth depressive symptoms at baseline only (P = 0.0430); subclinical BE in parents was related to the presence of subclinical BE (P = 0.0354) and depressive symptoms (P = 0.0326) in youth throughout the study period. Parental diabetes and hypertension were associated with lack of glycemic control, hypertension, and higher BMI z scores in youth. Further research is needed to better understand and address parental biological and behavioral factors to improve youth health outcomes. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.
    Diabetes care 03/2015; 38(5). DOI:10.2337/dc14-2393 · 8.57 Impact Factor