Comparison of femoral and auricular arterial blood pressure monitoring in pigs.
ABSTRACT To compare arterial blood pressure measurements obtained from the femoral and auricular arteries in anaesthetized pigs.
Prospective experimental study.
Fifteen female Large White pigs were used weighing 21.3 +/- 2.3 kg.
The pigs were anaesthetized with tiletamine/zolazepam and xylazine administered intramuscularly, and anaesthesia maintained with isoflurane delivered in oxygen/nitrogen. Arterial oxygen partial pressures were maintained between 11.3 and 13.3 kPa and PaCO(2) between 4.6 and 6.0 kPa. Monitoring included electrocardiogram, capnography and invasive blood pressure. The auricular and femoral arteries were catheterized for continuous systolic (SAP), diastolic (DAP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) measurements. Measurements were recorded every 15 minutes. Statistical analysis involved a Bland-Altman plot analysis.
The mean difference +/- confidence intervals between the femoral and the auricular arterial diastolic, systolic and mean blood pressure measurements during hypotension were 2 +/- 7, 2 +/- 5 and 2 +/- 5 mmHg respectively. In conditions of normotension mean difference +/- confidence intervals, of femoral and auricular arterial blood pressure measurements of diastolic, systolic and mean blood pressure were 4 +/- 5, 3 +/- 7 and 4 +/- 4 mmHg respectively. In conditions of increased arterial blood pressure, mean difference +/- confidence intervals, of femoral and auricular arterial blood pressure measurements of diastolic, systolic and mean blood pressure were 4 +/- 5, 3 +/- 8 and 4 +/- 4 mmHg respectively.
Auricular artery catheterization is easier and quicker to perform. Pressure measurements from the auricular artery compared well with the femoral artery.
We found that auricular arterial blood pressures were similar to femoral arterial values under the conditions of this experiment. We did not test extremes of blood pressure or significant alterations in body temperature.
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ABSTRACT: The dynamic performance of arterial manometers depends upon the values of the natural frequency fo and the damping factor beta. Satisfactory reproduction of all arterial waveforms requires that fo should be greater than about 13 Hz; for an fo of 13 Hz, beta should have a value of 0.5, but, as fo increases, an increasing range of beta values is permissible. We measured fo and beta for two pressure transducers (Gould P23 Statham and Gould Disposable) in combination with Portex or Gould catheter tubing of lengths varying from 100 cm to 300 cm. All combinations were considerably underdamped, with the best having an fo of 30 Hz and a beta of 0.1. We also investigated the performance of a commercial device, the Accudynamic, designed to allow beta to be increased without affecting fo. We found that the Accudynamic worked well, allowing acceptable performance to be obtained from the Gould Disposable transducer with catheters up to 200 cm in length.BJA British Journal of Anaesthesia 04/1988; 60(4):413-8. · 4.24 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Although minimally invasive (MI) cardiac surgery reduces blood loss, hospital stay, and recovery time, some MI approaches require femoral arterial cannulation, which introduces a heretofore unknown risk of femoral arterial injury. This study was performed to examine the risk of femoral arterial injury after Port Access MI cardiac surgery (PA-MICS) with femoral cannulation. Data were prospectively obtained on 739 consecutive patients who had PA-MICS with femoral cannulation between June 1996 and April 2000, identifying any patient with new (<30 days postoperative) arterial insufficiency from the cannulation site. Patient characteristics (gender, age, height, weight, body surface area, smoking, peripheral vascular disease, diabetes) and operative variables (cannula size, cross-clamp time) were examined with univariate and multivariate analysis to identify risk factors for arterial injury. Injuries were defined and classified by radiologic and intraoperative assessment, and follow-up was obtained by patient examination and from the medical records. Femoral arterial occlusion (FAC) occurred in 0.68% (5/739) of patients (4 women, 1 man; age range 26-74 years). The risk of femoral injury was higher in women: 1.31% vs 0.23% (p = 0.07). One patient had intraoperative limb ischemia from iliofemoral dissection and was treated by axillopopliteal bypass. Four patients presented postoperatively with claudication. Three of these had iliofemoral arterial occlusion or localized iliofemoral dissection and were treated with iliofemoral bypass, and 1 patient had localized femoral artery stenosis treated by angioplasty. With a mean follow-up of 17.8 months (range 13-26 months) limb salvage was achieved in all patients. Secondary or tertiary interventions were required in 40% (2/5), both in patients with iliofemoral occlusion, and 1 patient (20% of femoral injuries, 0.135% of overall series) has chronic graft occlusion and long-term claudication. The risk of arterial injury after femoral arterial cannulation and perfusion for Port Access surgery was low (0.68%). This risk is increased in women and is unpredictable. Initial vascular repair has a significant failure rate, and secondary interventions are often necessary. Although the femoral cannulation and perfusion technique is safe overall, the risk must be clearly recognized.Vascular and Endovascular Surgery 01/2005; 39(2):153-8. · 0.88 Impact Factor
- Anesthesiology 02/1976; 44(1):80-3. · 5.16 Impact Factor