These studies examined the effects of X radiation and interleukin 3 (IL-3), which is an effective cytokine for the generation of megakaryocytopoiesis from X-irradiated hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, on the terminal process of human megakaryocytopoiesis and thrombopoiesis. Mature megakaryocytes were induced by culturing CD34(+) cells from normal human peripheral blood in a serum-free liquid culture stimulated with thrombopoietin. The experiments contained the following groups: control cultures with nonirradiated cells incubated for 15 days; cultures treated with IL-3 on day 7 or day 11, cultures irradiated with 2 Gy on day 7 or day 11, and cultures treated with IL-3 immediately after X irradiation. The nonirradiated control cultures produced megakaryocytes from day 7, and both the megakaryocyte and platelet generation reached a peak on day 12-13. When X irradiation was performed on day 7, both the megakaryocyte and platelet numbers decreased remarkably, while no significant effect was observed on those numbers when cultures were X-irradiated on day 11. IL-3 showed neither protective nor promoting effects on the terminal stages of megakaryocytic maturation and platelet production. The results demonstrated that mature megakaryocytes are radiosensitive but that the radiosensitivity decreased with the terminal stages of megakaryocytic maturation, especially for the megakaryocytes entering into proplatelet formation.
"Megakaryocytopoiesis and thrombopoiesis are unique processes that lead to platelet production and consist of the following events: the commitment of hematopoietic precursors to the megakaryocyte lineage, the differentiation of megakaryocyte progenitors to recognizable megakaryocytes, formation of polyploid cells, cytoplasmic maturation and platelet shedding . There are many uncertain issues regarding the final step of megakaryocytopoiesis and thrombopoiesis, including the identity of the promoting factor(s) for platelet production. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Megakaryocytes are generated by the differentiation of megakaryocytic progenitors; however, little information has been reported regarding how ionizing radiation affects the differentiation pathway and cellular responses. Human leukemia K562 cells have been used as a model to study megakaryocytic differentiation. In the present study, to investigate the effects of radiation on phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced megakaryocytic differentiation of K562 cells, the cellular processes responsible for the expression of CD41 antigen (GPIIb/IIIa), which is reported to be expressed early in megakaryocyte maturation, were analyzed. The expression of CD41 antigens was significantly increased 72 h after treatment with both 4 Gy X-irradiation and PMA. In this fraction, two populations, CD41(low) and CD41(high) cells, were detected by flow cytometry. The CD41(high) cells sustained intracellular ROS at the initial level for up to 72 h, but CD41(low) cells had reduced ROS by 48 h. The maximum suppressive effect on CD41 expression was observed when N-acetyl cysteine, which is known to act as a ROS scavenger, was administered 48 h after PMA stimulation. When K562 cells were pretreated with mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway inhibitors, an ERK1/2 inhibitor and a p38 MAPK inhibitor, followed by X-irradiation and PMA stimulation, the reactivity profiles of both inhibitors showed the involvement of MAPK pathway. There is a possibility that the K562 cell population contains at least two types of radiosensitive megakaryocytic progenitors with respect to ROS production mechanisms, and intracellular ROS levels determine the extent of CD41 expression.
Journal of Radiation Research 01/2013; 54(3). DOI:10.1093/jrr/rrs127 · 1.80 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hematopoietic processes, especially megakaryocytopoiesis and thrombopoiesis, are highly sensitive to high-linear energy transfer (LET) radiations such as heavy-ion beams that have greater biological effects than low-LET radiation. This study examined the terminal maturation of megakaryocytes and platelet production derived from hematopoietic stem cells irradiated with heavy-ion beams. CD34(+) cells derived from human placental/umbilical cord blood were exposed to monoenergetic carbon-ion beams (LET = 50 keV/µm) and then cultured in a serum-free medium supplemented with thrombopoietin and interleukin-3. There was no significant difference in megakaryocyte-specific markers between nonirradiated control and irradiated cells. Expression of Tie-2, a receptor that acts in early hematopoiesis, showed a significant 1.31-fold increase after 2 Gy irradiation compared to control cells on day 7. There was a significant increase in Tie-2 mRNA expression. In addition, the expression of other mRNAs, such as PECAM1, SELP and CD44, was also significantly increased in cells irradiated with heavy-ion beams. However, the adherent function of platelets derived from the irradiated cells showed no difference from that in the controls. These results clarify that the functions of megakaryocytopoiesis and thrombopoiesis derived from hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells irradiated with heavy-ion beams are similar to those in the unirradiated cells, although heavy-ion beams affect the expression of genes associated with cellular adhesion.
Radiation Research 04/2011; 176(1):8-16. DOI:10.2307/25835562 · 2.91 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The events of September 11, 2001 and their aftermath increased awareness of the need to develop medical countermeasures (MCMs) to treat potential health consequences of a radiation accident or deliberate attack. The medical effects of lethal exposures to ionizing radiation have been well described and affect multiple organ systems. To date, much of the research to develop treatments for mitigation of radiation-induced hematopoietic damage has focused on amelioration of radiation-induced neutropenia, which has long been considered to be the primary factor in determining survival after an unintentional radiation exposure. Consistent with historical data, recent studies have highlighted the role that radiation-induced thrombocytopenia plays in radiation mortality, yet development of MCMs to mitigate radiation damage to the megakaryocyte lineage has lagged behind anti-neutropenia approaches. To address this gap and to foster research in the area of platelet regeneration after radiation exposure, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) sponsored a workshop on March 22–23, 2010 to encourage collaborations between NIAID program awardees and companies developing pro-platelet approaches. NIAID also organized an informal, open discussion between academic investigators, product development contractors, and representatives from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and other relevant government agencies about drug development toward FDA licensure of products for an acute radiation syndrome indication. Specific emphasis was placed on the challenges of product licensure for radiation/nuclear MCMs using current FDA regulations (21 CFR Parts 314 and 601) and on the importance of animal efficacy model development, design of pivotal protocols, and standardization of irradiation and animal supportive care.
Radiation Research 05/2011; 176(1):134-7. DOI:10.1667/RR2610.1 · 2.91 Impact Factor
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