Radiation Sensitivities in the Terminal Stages of Megakaryocytic Maturation and Platelet Production

Department of Radiological Life Sciences, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Health Sciences, Hirosaki, Aomori 036-8564, Japan.
Radiation Research (Impact Factor: 2.91). 10/2009; 172(3):314-20. DOI: 10.1667/RR1519.1
Source: PubMed


These studies examined the effects of X radiation and interleukin 3 (IL-3), which is an effective cytokine for the generation of megakaryocytopoiesis from X-irradiated hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, on the terminal process of human megakaryocytopoiesis and thrombopoiesis. Mature megakaryocytes were induced by culturing CD34(+) cells from normal human peripheral blood in a serum-free liquid culture stimulated with thrombopoietin. The experiments contained the following groups: control cultures with nonirradiated cells incubated for 15 days; cultures treated with IL-3 on day 7 or day 11, cultures irradiated with 2 Gy on day 7 or day 11, and cultures treated with IL-3 immediately after X irradiation. The nonirradiated control cultures produced megakaryocytes from day 7, and both the megakaryocyte and platelet generation reached a peak on day 12-13. When X irradiation was performed on day 7, both the megakaryocyte and platelet numbers decreased remarkably, while no significant effect was observed on those numbers when cultures were X-irradiated on day 11. IL-3 showed neither protective nor promoting effects on the terminal stages of megakaryocytic maturation and platelet production. The results demonstrated that mature megakaryocytes are radiosensitive but that the radiosensitivity decreased with the terminal stages of megakaryocytic maturation, especially for the megakaryocytes entering into proplatelet formation.

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    • "Megakaryocytopoiesis and thrombopoiesis are unique processes that lead to platelet production and consist of the following events: the commitment of hematopoietic precursors to the megakaryocyte lineage, the differentiation of megakaryocyte progenitors to recognizable megakaryocytes, formation of polyploid cells, cytoplasmic maturation and platelet shedding [1]. There are many uncertain issues regarding the final step of megakaryocytopoiesis and thrombopoiesis, including the identity of the promoting factor(s) for platelet production. "
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    ABSTRACT: Megakaryocytes are generated by the differentiation of megakaryocytic progenitors; however, little information has been reported regarding how ionizing radiation affects the differentiation pathway and cellular responses. Human leukemia K562 cells have been used as a model to study megakaryocytic differentiation. In the present study, to investigate the effects of radiation on phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced megakaryocytic differentiation of K562 cells, the cellular processes responsible for the expression of CD41 antigen (GPIIb/IIIa), which is reported to be expressed early in megakaryocyte maturation, were analyzed. The expression of CD41 antigens was significantly increased 72 h after treatment with both 4 Gy X-irradiation and PMA. In this fraction, two populations, CD41(low) and CD41(high) cells, were detected by flow cytometry. The CD41(high) cells sustained intracellular ROS at the initial level for up to 72 h, but CD41(low) cells had reduced ROS by 48 h. The maximum suppressive effect on CD41 expression was observed when N-acetyl cysteine, which is known to act as a ROS scavenger, was administered 48 h after PMA stimulation. When K562 cells were pretreated with mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway inhibitors, an ERK1/2 inhibitor and a p38 MAPK inhibitor, followed by X-irradiation and PMA stimulation, the reactivity profiles of both inhibitors showed the involvement of MAPK pathway. There is a possibility that the K562 cell population contains at least two types of radiosensitive megakaryocytic progenitors with respect to ROS production mechanisms, and intracellular ROS levels determine the extent of CD41 expression.
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Satoru Monzen