Article

Low-dose radiation-induced senescent stromal fibroblasts render nearby breast cancer cells radioresistant.

Department of Genetics & Complex Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.
Radiation Research (Impact Factor: 2.45). 10/2009; 172(3):306-13. DOI: 10.1667/RR1764.1
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT In addition to cell cycle arrest, DNA repair or/and apoptosis, ionizing radiation can also induce premature senescence, which could lead to very different biological consequences depending on the cell type. We show in this report that low-dose radiation-induced senescent stromal fibroblasts stimulate proliferation of cocultured breast carcinoma cells. Such effects of senescent fibroblasts appear to result from their ability to induce the expression in carcinoma cells of mitotic genes and subsequent mitotic division. The elevated proliferation of breast carcinoma cells correlates with resistance to radiation as well as to adriamycin. Of interest is the observation that exposure to lower doses (<20 cGy) augments the ability of senescent fibroblasts to promote the survival of cocultured breast carcinoma cells. The resistance appears to be mediated partially by the Akt pathway, because expression of a dominant negative Akt mutant in breast carcinoma cells results in a partial reversal of the radioresistance. The ability of fibroblasts to modulate the radiosensitivity of nearby carcinoma cells implicates the importance of targeting the stroma during therapy.

Full-text

Available from: Kelvin K. Tsai, Jun 03, 2015
2 Followers
 · 
144 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The use of charged particles significantly reduces the dose absorbed by normal cells due to the inverse dose-depth deposition profile. This is the physical pillar justifying hadrontherapy as the eligible treatment for deepseated tumours. However, a non-negligible amount of radiation is nevertheless absorbed in correspondence with the plateau region of the Bragg curve, which may result in the induction of sub-lethal effects. Very little experimental data exist on the induction of such effects. Moreover, reliable follow-up data on such adverse effects in hadrontherapy patients are limited since this type of treatment has been adopted relatively recently. A fortiori, the dependence of sub-lethal effects on unprecedented factors, such as the exceedingly high dose rates and/or the pulsed nature of beams originated by laser interaction with target materials, is unknown. This warrants investigation prior to a therapeutic use of such beams.
    07/2013; DOI:10.1063/1.4816613
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Human phenotypes that are highly susceptible to radiation carcinogenesis have been identified. Sensitive phenotypes often display robust regulation of molecular features that modify biological response, which can facilitate identification of the pathways/networks that contribute to pathophysiological outcomes. Here we interrogate primary dermal fibroblasts isolated from Gorlin syndrome patients (GDFs), who display a pronounced inducible tumorigenic response to radiation, in comparison to normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs). Our approach exploits newly developed thiol reactive probes to define changes in protein thiol profiles in live cell studies, which minimizes artifacts associated with cell lysis. Redox probes revealed deficient expression of an apparent 55 kDa protein thiol in GDFs from independent Gorlin syndrome patients, compared with NHDFs. Proteomics tentatively identified this protein as aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 (ALDH1A1), a key enzyme regulating retinoic acid synthesis, and ALDH1A1 protein deficiency in GDFs was confirmed by Western blot. A number of additional protein thiol differences in GDFs were identified, including radiation responsive annexin family members and lamin A/C. Collectively, candidates identified in our study have plausible implications for radiation health effects and cancer susceptibility. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Molecular Carcinogenesis 11/2013; 54(6). DOI:10.1002/mc.22115 · 4.77 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The last decade has witnessed a revolution in the clinical application of high-dose "ablative" radiation therapy. Initially this approach was limited to the treatment of brain tumors, but more recently we have seen its successful extension to tumors outside the brain, e.g., for small lung nodules. These advances have been driven largely by improvements in image-guided inverse treatment planning that allow the dose per fraction to the tumor to be increased over the conventional 2 Gy dose while keeping the late normal tissue complications at an acceptable level by dose limitation. Despite initial concerns about excessive late complications, as might be expected based on dose extrapolations using the linear-quadratic equation, these approaches have shown considerable clinical promise. Our knowledge of the biological consequences of high-doses of ionizing radiation in normal and cancerous tissues has lagged behind these clinical advances. Our intent here is to survey recent experimental findings from the perspective of better understanding the biological effects of high-dose therapy and whether they are truly different from conventional doses. We will also consider the implications of this knowledge for further refining and improving these approaches on the basis of underlying mechanisms.
    Radiation Research 07/2014; 182(3). DOI:10.1667/RR13740.1 · 2.45 Impact Factor